Smell (olfaction) disorders
Decrease of olfactory function called hyposmia, increas — hyperosmia, complete absence - anosmia, perverse sense of smell — parosmiya (or cacosmia). The causes of essential anosmia (nerve endings of the olfactory analyzer are disrupted) can be infectious, viral diseases (in particular, influenza), ozena, trauma, etc. With respiratory hypo- or anosmia (olfaction impairment), air — the carrier of particles of odorous matter (odorivectors) — due to anatomical or pathological changes in the nasal cavity (polyps, deviated septum, inflammation etc.) can not get (or only partially) through the olfactory slit in the olfactory region.
Respiratory hypo- or anosmia can transform into essential. At first, the deterioration of the sense of smell is unstable and from time to time it is restored. However, with the progression of the disease, the hyposmia becomes constant and becomes an essential anosmia due to the degeneration of the peripheral receptors of the olfactory analyzer.
In fact, a different pathology, in which breathing through the nose is difficult, may affect the smell to some extent, since the receptor apparatus of the olfactory analyzer is located directly in the nasal cavity. However, hypo- and anosmia can also occur with completely free breathing through the nose (small polyps in the olfactory area, closure of the olfactory gap, etc.), i.e. In all cases, when the contact of olfactory analyzer peripheral receptors with odoriferous substances is disturbed.
Smell (olfaction) disorders diagnosis
The diagnosis of smell (olfaction) disorders is based on the data of a rhinoscopy, micro-rhinoscopy, the results of qualitative and quantitative methods of olfactory research, and the refinement of the character of smell (olfaction) disorders (respiratory or essential form). For differential diagnosis of respiratory and essential hypo- or anosmia, an adrenaline (ephedrine) test is used. The mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and the olfactory slit are lubricated with a 0.1% epinephrine solution or a 3% ephedrine solution, which facilitates the flow of air to the olfactory area through the olfactory gap. With respiratory hypo- or anosmia, the sense of smell is significantly improved, with the essential — it does not change, but in the case of their combination, it improves to some extent.
Smell (olfaction) disorders treatment
For the respiratory form of hypo- or anosmia we have developed microsurgical interventions. In order to improve the sense of smell (olfaction), the interventions are performed with the help of surgical optics (in chronic hypertrophic rhinitis, bullae, nasal polyps, synechia and atresia, nasal injuries, nasal septal deformities, tumors, anomalies of the nasal cavity). In essential hypo- or anosmia treatment is aimed at eliminating the causes with prescription of stimulating therapy, B group vitamins. In the case of hyper- and cacosmia carried treating the underlying disease (neurasthenia, influenza etc.).