Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism
Parkinson's disease - a slowly progressive condition which affects the precise movements, muscle control and body position in space. Parkinson's disease is the result of the destruction group of nerve cells ("Substantia nigra" - black substance) in the brain stem.
These nerve cells are joined by their filaments with both hemispheres of the brain. These nerve cells ("Substantia nigra" - black substance) are product and release of specific substances (neurotransmitters) that help control movement and coordination body position in space.
The absence of this neurotransmitters leads to the appearance of such outwardly visible signs of parkinsonism, as reduced range of motion with an increase in muscle tone, tremor of extremities, mask face, small steps walking, etc.
Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism diagnosis
Diagnosis of Parkinson's disease or parkinsonism begins with a neurological examination of the patient. According to the results of neurological examination may be already placed an accurate diagnosis. If the diagnosis is advanced, the patient will be given additional diagnostic purposes.
- REG, craniocervical vessels Doppler ultrasonography
- cervical spine radiography with functional tests
- brain MRI
- MRI angiography
- cervical spine MRI, etc.
The presence of the clinical triad of symptoms, including bradykinesia, tremor and rigidity, to be sufficient for the diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Morphological entity of Parkinson's disease is the damage of compact zone of the substantia nigra. This is true for most cases with a clinical picture of Parkinson's disease, although such symptoms occur in other neurologic disorders are usually not diagnosed in life.
Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for suspected Parkinson's disease or parkinsonism.
Parkinson's, triggered by medication, may not differ from idiopathic form of Parkinson's disease, although the tremor in a less marked. Clinical range postentsefaliticheskogo parkinsonism is much wider, because extrapyramidal changes are only part of lesions associated with multiple cerebral infarcts.
The incidence and severity of dementia in Parkinson's disease remains a subject of debate. One review suggests that a third of patients with Parkinson's disease in later stages of dementia will be observed. This conclusion is based on data from a study in which moderate or severe dementia was observed in 32% (of 520) of patients with Parkinson's disease. The truth in this group included patients with atypical manifestations of Parkinson's disease, as depletion, cerebellar tremor, dystonia or pyramidal signs, but even they have the symptoms of Parkinson's disease was prevalent.
Although the authors claim that the occurrence of dementia are equally likely in both typical and atypical cases of Parkinson's disease, another observation, which includes 93 patients, the researchers came to the opposite conclusion. Thus, according to their data, the mental disorders of organic nature (mainly dementia) were established in 15% of typical cases and in 68 % - of cases of atypical Parkinson's disease.
Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism treatment
Treatment of Parkinson's disease or Parkinson's disease is selected in the process of communicating with the patient as needed to establish what is the minimum dosage of a drug is able to eliminate the symptoms of the disease and slow down its progression, and as determined by the type of physical therapy aid and method of reflexology for the patient.
In order to regain lost strength and vitality, get rid of a significant number of problems associated with the spine or joints, a patient with Parkinson's disease or parkinsonism need to know and apply in their everyday lives a few simple exercises, physiotherapy.
In the case of surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease is used stereotactic surgery technique aiming destruction of extrapyramidal nuclei (freezing). As well a brain operation to implant the neurostimulator electrodes into the nucleus of the nerve centers of the brain (deep brain stimulation, DBS). After these operations in a patient with Parkinson's disease, tremor may partially or completely disappears.