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Knee joint (ligaments and meniscus) injury

Knee joint (ligaments and meniscus) injury

The most common mechanism of injuries of ligaments and meniscus of the knee joint is podvertyvanie leg inwards or outwards, often in the winter on the slippery ice, ice-covered areas and levels. May occur when jumping from a low altitude.

Side view of a ligament and meniscus in the knee joint section.

Knee joint (ligaments and meniscus) injury diagnosis

Signs of traumatic knee ligament apparatus are local pain with palpation in the locations damaged ligaments attach to bone, increased pain when playing a mechanism for injury, swelling in the area of injury, a bruise in the knee, hemarthrosis (bleeding into the cavity of the knee joint).

Strengthening the pain while playing due to injury mechanism tension of soft tissues (ligaments, muscles and tendons) in damage to the knee.

When the knee hemarthrosis appears elastic swelling in the anterolateral corners of the joint, palpation is determined by the fluctuation.

MRI of the knee joint ligaments and meniscus.

With torn ligaments patients often feel a crunch or crack in the knee joint. Typically, these victims was considerable swelling of injury, hemarthrosis and pronounced pain syndrome.

Hardware diagnostics can be to conduct X-rays, MRI or CT scans of the knee. These procedures are selected physician traumatologist and depend on the type of joint damage.

Rear view of the ligaments and meniscus of the knee joint.

Bone marrow edema is the accumulation of fluid in the epiphyses of the bones of the knee joint. It is often caused by knee joint trauma, microfractures or osteoarthritis. Bone marrow edema is a frequent finding on the knee MRI, and if it is localized under the articular surface, this can be a factor that causes changes in the surface of the knee joint.

The exact causes and pathology of edema of the bone marrow are not fully understood, but the literature notes that edema of the bone marrow can occur spontaneously, often due to changes in the load on the knee, and can cause exacerbation of pain that lasts up to 6-12 months.

MRI of the knee joint: a - bone marrow edema of tibial epiphysis, b - bone marrow edema of femoral epiphysis.

 

Knee joint (ligaments and meniscus) injury first aid and treatment

When straining ligaments are not accompanied by a sharp pain syndrome and hemarthrosis of the knee, treatment is reduced to the imposition of a tight 8-shaped bandage and apply a cold, but after 1-2 days - heat in the damaged area, UHF, electrophoresis. The patient was allowed to walk, loading the injured limb in a special holder ligaments of the knee joint.

Finiteness in a special holder (brace) ligaments of the knee joint.

Ability to work with straining ligaments are not accompanied by a pronounced pain syndrome and hemarthrosis usually recovers within 7-10 days. In cases where the tear ligaments of the knee joint is accompanied by sharp pains, there is considerable swelling in the area of injury and hemarthrosis, therapeutic tactics must be different.

Front view of the ligaments and patella of the knee joint.

If you need to make a puncture hemarthrosis of knee joint with the evacuation of the blood streamed from him. In order to reduce edema and resorption of hemorrhages in the knee injuries is assigned UHF therapy. Appointed by the warm baths, physiotherapy exercises, massage muscles damaged limbs, tight bandaging of the joint or bearing retainer cords for the entire period of follow-up care in the first 2-3 weeks.

In the treatment of injuries of ligaments and meniscus removal of edema, inflammation, pain, restore range of motion in the knee joint and its muscles accelerated by the use of physiotherapy.

If resistant, long-term pain of a good therapeutic effect has physiotherapy - UHF electrophoresis with a solution of anesthetic and potassium iodide, the introduction of novocaine solution and hydrocortisone in the greatest point of pain (the blockade).

In severe cases, rupture of ligaments (cruciate) and the meniscus is possible arthroscopic surgery to remedy the defect.

The procedures that indicated for the treatment of bone marrow edema are often a combination of medicamentous treatment (both non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids), knee joint manual therapy, various physiotherapy procedures and weight loss.

Endoscopic (arthroscopic) surgery on the knee joint with rupture of ligament and meniscus.