Abiplatin - General Information
Abiplatin, cisplatinum or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug used to treat various types of cancers, including sarcomas, some carcinomas (e.g. small cell lung cancer, and ovarian cancer), lymphomas and germ cell tumors. It was the first member of its class, which now also includes carboplatin and oxaliplatin.
Pharmacology of Abiplatin
Abiplatin is an antineoplastic in the class of alkylating agents and is used to treat various forms of cancer. Alkylating agents are so named because of their ability to add alkyl groups to many electronegative groups under conditions present in cells. They stop tumor growth by cross-linking guanine bases in DNA double-helix strands - directly attacking DNA. This makes the strands unable to uncoil and separate. As this is necessary in DNA replication, the cells can no longer divide. In addition, these drugs add methyl or other alkyl groups onto molecules where they do not belong which in turn inhibits their correct utilization by base pairing and causes a miscoding of DNA. Alkylating agents are cell cycle-nonspecific. Alkylating agents work by three different mechanisms all of which achieve the same end result - disruption of DNA function and cell death.
Abiplatin for patients
Plasma levels of anticonvulsant agents may become subtherapeutic during cisplatin therapy.
In a randomized trial in advanced ovarian cancer, response duration was adversely affected when pyridoxine was used in combination with altretamine (hexamethylmelamine) and cisplatin.1
Cisplatin is contraindicated in patients with preexisting renal impairment. Cisplatin should not be employed in myelosuppressed patients, or patients with hearing impairment.
Cisplatin is contraindicated in patients with a history of allergic reactions to cisplatin or other platinum-containing compounds.
Additional information about Abiplatin
Abiplatin Indication: For the treatment of metastatic testicular tumors, metastatic ovarian tumors and advanced bladder cancer.
Mechanism Of Action: Alkylating agents work by three different mechanisms: 1) attachment of alkyl groups to DNA bases, resulting in the DNA being fragmented by repair enzymes in their attempts to replace the alkylated bases, preventing DNA synthesis and RNA transcription from the affected DNA, 2) DNA damage via the formation of cross-links (bonds between atoms in the DNA) which prevents DNA from being separated for synthesis or transcription, and 3) the induction of mispairing of the nucleotides leading to mutations.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Cisplatin
Synonyms: Cis-Diaminedichloroplatinum; Cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum; Diamminedichloroplatinum; CPDC; CPDD; DDP; DDPT; Cis-DDP; CACP; Platinum Ammine Chloride; Platinum Ammonium Chloride; Platinum Diamine Dichloride; Trans-DDP; Trans-Platinumdiammine Dichloride; Trans-Dichlorodiammine Platinum; Trans-Diamminedichloroplatinum; Trans-Diaminedichloroplatinum
Drug Category: Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; Antineoplastic Agents; Cross-Linking Reagents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Cisplatin: Abiplatin; Biocisplatinum; Briplatin; Carboquone; Cis Pt II; Cismaplat; Cisplatine; Cisplatyl; Citoplationo; Lederplatin; Neoplatin; Plastin; Platamine; Platiblastin; Platidiam; Platinex; Platinol; Platinol-AQ; Platinoxan; Randa;
Absorption: Not Available
Toxicity (Overdose): Not Available
Protein Binding: Greater than 90%.
Biotransformation: Not Available
Half Life: 20-30 minutes
Dosage Forms of Abiplatin: Solution Intravenous
Chemical IUPAC Name: azane; dichloroplatinum
Chemical Formula: Cl2H6N2Pt+2
Cisplatin on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cisplatin
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals