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Akinophyl

Akinophyl - General Information

A muscarinic antagonist that has effects in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It has been used in the treatment of arteriosclerotic, idiopathic, and postencephalitic parkinsonism. It has also been used to alleviate extrapyramidal symptoms induced by phenothiazine derivatives and reserpine.

 

Pharmacology of Akinophyl

Akinophyl is a weak peripheral anticholinergic agent. It has, therefore, some antisecretory, antispasmodic and mydriatic effects. In addition, biperiden possesses nicotinolytic activity. The parenteral form of biperiden is an effective and reliable agent for the treatment of acute episodes of extrapyramidal disturbances sometimes seen during treatment with neuroleptic agents. Akathisia, akinesia, dyskinetic tremors, rigor, oculogyric crisis, spasmodic torticollis, and profuse sweating are markedly reduced or eliminated. With parenteral biperiden, these drug-induced disturbances are rapidly brought under control.

 

Akinophyl for patients

 

Akinophyl Interactions

Drug Interactions: The central anticholinergic syndrome can occur when anticholinergic agents such as AKINETON are administered concomitantly with drugs that have secondary anticholinergic actions, e.g., certain narcotic analgesics such as meperidine, the phenothiazines and other antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, certain antiarrhythmics such as the quinidine salts, and antihistamines.

 

Akinophyl Contraindications

  1. Hypersensitivity to biperiden
  2. Narrow angle glaucoma
  3. Bowel obstruction
  4. Megacolon

 

Additional information about Akinophyl

Akinophyl Indication: For use as an adjunct in the therapy of all forms of parkinsonism and control of extrapyramidal disorders secondary to neuroleptic drug therapy.
Mechanism Of Action: Parkinsonism is thought to result from an imbalance between the excitatory (cholinergic) and inhibitory (dopaminergic) systems in the corpus striatum. The mechanism of action of centrally active anticholinergic drugs such as biperiden is considered to relate to competitive antagonism of acetylcholine at cholinergic receptors in the corpus striatum, which then restores the balance.
Drug Interactions: Donepezil Possible antagonism of action
Galantamine Possible antagonism of action
Haloperidol The anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
Rivastigmine Possible antagonism of action
Food Interactions: Take with food.
Avoid alcohol.
Generic Name: Biperiden
Synonyms: Biperiden [Usan-Ban-Inn-Jan]; Biperiden Hydrochloride; Biperidene Hydrochloride; Biperidene [Inn-French]; Biperideno [Inn-Spanish]; Biperidenum [Inn-Latin]; Biperidine; Biperidine Hydrochloride; Beperiden
Drug Category: Antiparkinson Agents; Antidyskinetics; Muscarinic Antagonists; Parasympatholytics
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Biperiden: Akineton; Akinophyl;
Absorption: 87% bioavailability
Toxicity (Overdose): LD50=760 mg/kg (Orally in rats). Signs of overdose include dilated and sluggish pupils, warm, dry skin, facial flushing, decreased secretions of the mouth, pharynx, nose, and bronchi, foul-smelling breath, elevated temperature, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, decreased bowel sounds, urinary retention, delirium, disorientation, anxiety, hallucinations, illusions, confusion, incoherence, agitation, hyperactivity, ataxia, loss of memory, paranoia, combativeness, and seizures.
Protein Binding: 60%
Biotransformation: The metabolism of biperiden is not completely understood, but does involve hydroxylation.
Half Life: Not Available
Dosage Forms of Akinophyl: Tablet Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: 1-(6-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-enyl)-1-phenyl-3-piperidin-1-ylpropan-1-ol
Chemical Formula: C21H29NO
Biperiden on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biperiden
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals