Albetol - General Information
Blocker of both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors that is used as an antihypertensive.
Pharmacology of Albetol
Albetol is an alpha-1 and beta adrenergic blocker used to treat high blood pressure. It works by blocking these adrenergic receptors, which slows sinus heart rate, decreases peripheral vascular resistance, and decreases cardiac output.
Albetol for patients
In one survey, 2.3% of patients taking labetalol HCl in combination with tricyclic antidepressants experienced tremor, as compared to 0.7% reported to occur with labetalol HCl alone. The contribution of each of the treatments to this adverse reaction is unknown but the possibility of a drug interaction cannot be excluded.
Drugs possessing beta-blocking properties can blunt the bronchodilator effect of beta-receptor agonist drugs in patients with bronchospasm; therefore, doses greater than the normal antiasthmatic dose of beta-agonist bronchodilator drugs may be required.
Cimetidine has been shown to increase the bioavailability of labetalol HCl. Since this could be explained either by enhanced absorption or by an alteration of hepatic metabolism of labetalol HCl, special care should be used in establishing the dose required for blood pressure control in such patients.
Synergism has been shown between halothane anesthesia and intravenously administered labetalol HCl. During controlled hypotensive anesthesia using labetalol HCl in association with halothane, high concentrations (3% or above) of halothane should not be used because the degree of hypotension will be increased and because of the possibility of a large reduction in cardiac output and an increase in central venous pressure. The anesthesiologist should be informed when a patient is receiving labetalol HCl.
Labetalol HCl blunts the reflex tachycardia produced by nitroglycerin without preventing its hypotensive effect. If labetalol HCl is used with nitroglycerin in patients with angina pectoris, additional antihypertensive effects may occur.
Care should be taken if labetalol is used concomitantly with calcium antagonists of the verapamil type.
Risk of Anaphylactic Reaction
While taking beta-blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reaction.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
The presence of labetalol metabolites in the urine may result in falsely elevated levels of urinary catecholamines, metanephrine, normetanephrine and vanillylmandelic acid when measured by fluorimetric or photometric methods. In screening patients suspected of having a pheochromocytoma and being treated with labetalol HCl, a specific method, such as a high performance liquid chromatographic assay with solid phase extraction (e.g., J Chromatogr 385:241,1987) should be employed in determining levels of catecholamines.
Labetalol HCl has also been reported to produce a false positive test for amphetamine when screening urine for the presence of drugs using the commercially available assay methods Toxi-Lab A (thin-layer chromatographic assay) and Emit-d.a.u.® (radioenzymatic assay). When patients being treated with labetalol have a positive urine test for amphetamine using these techniques confirmation should be made by using more specific methods such as a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometer technique.
TRANDATE Tablets are contraindicated in bronchial asthma, overt cardiac failure, greater-than-first-degree heart block, cardiogenic shock, severe bradycardia, other conditions associated with severe and prolonged hypotension, and in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any component of the product.
Beta-blockers, even those with apparent cardioselectivity, should not be used in patients with a history of obstructive airway disease, including asthma.
Additional information about Albetol
Albetol Indication: For the management of hypertension.
Mechanism Of Action: Albetol has two asymmetric centers and therefore, exists as a molecular complex of two diastereoisomeric pairs. Dilevalol, the R,R' stereoisomer, makes up 25% of racemic labetalol. Albetol HCl combines both selective, competitive, alpha-1-adrenergic blocking and nonselective, competitive, beta-adrenergic blocking activity in a single substance. In man, the ratios of alpha- to beta- blockade have been estimated to be approximately 1:3 and 1:7 following oral and intravenous (IV) administration, respectively. Beta-2-agonist activity has been demonstrated in animals with minimal beta-1-agonist (ISA) activity detected. In animals, at doses greater than those required for alpha- or beta- adrenergic blockade, a membrane stabilizing effect has been demonstrated.
Drug Interactions: Acetohexamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Chlorpropamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Disopyramide The beta-blocker increases toxicity of disopyramide
Gliclazide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glipizide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glisoxepide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glibenclamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glycodiazine The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Lidocaine The beta-blocker increases the effect and toxicity of lidocaine
Repaglinide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Tolazamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Tolbutamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Cimetidine Cimetidine increases the effect of the beta-blocker
Clonidine Increased hypertension when clonidine stopped
Dihydroergotamine Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Dihydroergotoxine Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Ergonovine Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Ergotamine Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Methysergide Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Enflurane Monitor arterial pressure closely
Halothane Monitor arterial pressure closely
Isoflurane Monitor arterial pressure closely
Epinephrine Hypertension, then bradycardia
Verapamil Increased effect of both drugs
Ibuprofen Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins
Indomethacin Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins
Piroxicam Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins
Prazosin Risk of hypotension at the beginning of therapy
Food Interactions: Take without regard to meals.
Generic Name: Labetalol
Synonyms: Labetolol; Labetalolum [INN-Latin]; Labetalol hydrochloride; Labetalol HCL
Drug Category: Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; Antihypertensive Agents; Sympatholytics
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Labetalol: Albetol; Ibidomide; Normodyne; Presdate; Trandate;
Absorption: Completely absorbed (100%) from the gastrointestinal tract with peak plasma levels occurring 1 to 2 hours after oral administration. The absolute bioavailability of labetalol is increased when administered with food.
Toxicity (Overdose): LD50 = 66 mg/kg (Rat, IV). Side effects or adverse reactions include dizziness when standing up, very low blood pressure, severely slow heartbeat, weakness, diminished sexual function, fatigue
Protein Binding: 50%
Biotransformation: Primarily hepatic, undergoes significant first pass metabolism
Half Life: 6-8 hours
Dosage Forms of Albetol: Tablet Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: 2-hydroxy-5-[1-hydroxy-2-(4-phenylbutan-2-ylamino)ethyl]benzamide
Chemical Formula: C19H24N2O3
Labetalol on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labetalol
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals