Alphagan - General Information
Alphagan is a drug used to treat glaucoma. It acts via decreasing aqueous humor synthesis. [Wikipedia]
Pharmacology of Alphagan
Alphagan significantly lowers intraocular pressure with minimal effects on cardiovascular and pulmonary parameters. It lowers intraocular pressure by reducing aqueous humor production and increasing uveoscleral outflow.
Alphagan for patients
Brimonidine tartrate is used for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Do not take this drug if you are currently taking MAO Inhibitors (e.g., Parnate). Inform your doctor if you are pregnant or nursing.
This product may stain soft contact lenses. Wait at least 15 minutes after instilling brimonidine to insert contact lenses.
May cause drowsiness or tiredness; use caution while driving or operating hazardous machinery. May cause dry mouth, blurring, stinging, or burning of the eyes; headaches, fatigue or drowsiness; allergic or itching of the eyes. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if these effects occur.
Although specific drug interaction studies have not been conducted with ALPHAGAN P, the possibility of an additive or potentiating effect with CNS depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, sedatives, or anesthetics) should be considered. Alpha-agonists, as a class, may reduce pulse and blood pressure. Caution in using concomitant drugs such as beta-blockers (ophthalmic and systemic), anti-hypertensives and/or cardiac glycosides is advised.
Tricyclic antidepressants have been reported to blunt the hypotensive effect of systemic clonidine.It is not known whether the concurrent use of these agents with ALPHAGAN P in humans can lead to resulting interference with the IOP lowering effect. No data on the level of circulating catecholamines after ALPHAGAN P administration are available. Caution, however, is advised in patients taking tricyclic antidepressants which can affect the metabolism and uptake of circulating amines.
ALPHAGAN P is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to brimonidine tartrate or any component of this medication. It is also contraindicated in patients receiving monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor therapy.
Additional information about Alphagan
Alphagan Indication: For the lowering of intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
Mechanism Of Action: Alphagan is an alpha adrenergic receptor agonist. It has a peak ocular hypotensive effect occurring at two hours post-dosing. Fluorophotometric studies in animals and humans suggest that Alphagan has a dual mechanism of action by reducing aqueous humor production and increasing uveoscleral outflow.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Brimonidine
Synonyms: Brimonidine tartrate; Bromoxidine
Drug Category: Antihypertensive Agents; EENT Drugs
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Brimonidine: Alphagan; Alphagan P;
Absorption: Minimal systemic absorption occurs after ocular insertion.
Toxicity (Overdose): Oral LD50 is 50 mg/kg in mice and 100 mg/kg in rats.
Protein Binding: Not Available
Biotransformation: Metabolized primarily by the liver.
Half Life: 2 hours
Dosage Forms of Alphagan: Solution Ophthalmic
Chemical IUPAC Name: 5-bromo-N-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)quinoxalin-6-amine
Chemical Formula: C11H10BrN5
Brimonidine on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brimonidine
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals