Alyrane - General Information
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
Pharmacology of Alyrane
Alyrane is an extremely stable halogenated ether inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate. Alyrane induces muscle relaxation and reduces pains sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. Induction of and recovery from anesthesia with enflurane are rapid. Alyrane may provide a mild stimulus to salivation or tracheobronchial secretions. Pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes are readily obtunded. In the cardiovascular system, enflurane is a mild negative inotrope, causing a marked decrease in systemic vascular resistance, thus leading to a decrease in mean arterial pressure. This results in a reflex tachycardia. Alyrane also decreases coronary vascular resistance and sensitizes the myocardium to circulating catecholamines. Alyrane is a strong respiratory depressant. It decreases tidal volume but may increase respiratory rate. It also causes bronchodilatationa and inhibits pulmonary macrophage activity and mucociliary activity. Alyrane principle action in the CNS is general anaesthesia with little analgesic effect. It causes increased cerebral blood flow in concentrations and may induce tonic/clonic muscle activity and epileptiform EEG traces. It also causes a marked decrease in skeletal muscle tone. Actions in the genitourinary system include a decreased renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and the tone of pregnant uterus is decreased.
Alyrane for patients
The action of nondepolarizing relaxants is augmented by Enflurane. Less than the usual amounts of these medicines should be used. If the usual amounts of nondepolarizing relaxants are given, the time for recovery from neuromuscular blockade will be longer in the presence of Enflurane than when halothane or nitrous oxide with a balanced technique are used.
Not recommended for patients with seizure disorders, sensitivity and genetic susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia
Additional information about Alyrane
Alyrane Indication: Used for the induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia during surgery and cesarean section and also used for analgesia during vaginal delivery.
Mechanism Of Action: Alyrane induces a reduction in junctional conductance by decreasing gap junction channel opening times and increasing gap junction channel closing times. Alyrane also activates calcium dependent ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum by increasing the fluidity of the lipid membrane. It also appears to bind the D subunit of ATP synthase and NADH dehydogenase. Alyrane also binds to the GABA receptor, the large conductance Ca2+ activated potassium channel, the glutamate receptor and the glycine receptor.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Enflurane
Synonyms: Anesthetic 347; Anesthetic Compound No. 347; Compound 347; Enflurano [INN-Spanish]; Enfluranum [INN-Latin]; Methylflurether; Ohio 347
Drug Category: Anesthetics, Inhalation; General Anesthetics
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Enflurane: Alyrane; Efrane; Ethrane;
Absorption: Rapidly absorbed into the circulation via the lungs.
Toxicity (Overdose): LD50=5.4 ml/kg (oral, rat). Symptoms of acute overdose include nausea, vomiting, irritation to the eyes, skin and nose/throat, headache, dizziness, and drowsiness. Symptoms of chronic overdose include hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory depression, and liver/kidney dysfunction.
Protein Binding: 97%
Biotransformation: 2.4% of the dose is slowly metabolized hepatically via oxidation and dehalogenation (primarily through the actions of cytochrome P450 2E1). Leads to low levels of serum fluoride (15 µmol/L).
Half Life: Not Available
Dosage Forms of Alyrane: Liquid Respiratory (inhalation)
Chemical IUPAC Name: 2-chloro-1-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,2-trifluoroethane
Chemical Formula: C3H2ClF5O
Enflurane on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enflurane
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals