Amicacin - General Information
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from kanamycin. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Pharmacology of Amicacin
Amicacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of t-RNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Aminoglycosides are useful primarily in infections involving aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Enterobacter. In addition, some mycobacteria, including the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, are susceptible to aminoglycosides. Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria can also be treated with aminoglycosides, but other types of antibiotics are more potent and less damaging to the host. In the past the aminoglycosides have been used in conjunction with penicillin-related antibiotics in streptococcal infections for their synergistic effects, particularly in endocarditis. Aminoglycosides are mostly ineffective against anaerobic bacteria, fungi and viruses.
Amicacin for patients
Amikacin is potentially nephrotoxic, ototoxic and neurotoxic. Patient should
drink more fluid to minimize the chemical irritation to the kidney. Renal
function should be monitored before and during the course of the treatment.
Amikacin-induced ototoxicity is usually irreversible. Patient may not have any
symptoms. Patient may experience numbness, tingling, muscle twitching and
convultions because of the neurotoxicity.
If patient experiences any unusual signs or symptoms, please contact you doctor
No information provided.
A history of hypersensitivity to amikacin is a contraindication for its use. A history of hypersensitivity or serious toxic reactions to aminoglycosides may contraindicate the use of any other aminoglycoside because of the known cross-sensitivities of patients to drugs in this class.
Additional information about Amicacin
Amicacin Indication: For short-term treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas species, Escherichia coli, species of indole-positive and indole-negative Proteus, Providencia species, Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Serratia species, and Acinetobacter (Mima-Herellea) species.
Mechanism Of Action: Aminoglycosides like Amicacin "irreversibly" bind to specific 30S-subunit proteins and 16S rRNA. Amicacin inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit to prevent the formation of an initiation complex with messenger RNA. Specifically Amicacin binds to four nucleotides of 16S rRNA and a single amino acid of protein S12. This interferes with decoding site in the vicinity of nucleotide 1400 in 16S rRNA of 30S subunit. This region interacts with the wobble base in the anticodon of tRNA. This leads to interference with the initiation complex, misreading of mRNA so incorrect amino acids are inserted into the polypeptide leading to nonfunctional or toxic peptides and the breakup of polysomes into nonfunctional monosomes.
Drug Interactions: Atracurium The agent increases the effect of muscle relaxant
Bumetanide Increased ototoxicity
Ceforanide Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Cefotaxime Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Ceftazidime Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Ceftriaxone Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Cefuroxime Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Cefalotin Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Cephapirin Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Cisplatin Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Mivacurium The agent increases the effect of muscle relaxant
Ethacrynic acid Increased ototoxicity
Furosemide Increased ototoxicity
Rocuronium The agent increases the effect of muscle relaxant
Succinylcholine The agent increases the effect of muscle relaxant
Tubocurarine The agent increases the effect of muscle relaxant
Thalidomide Thalidomide increases the renal toxicity of the aminoglycoside
Torasemide Increased ototoxicity
Cefamandole Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Cefazolin Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Cefonicid Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Cefoperazone Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Cefotetan Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Cefoxitin Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Ceftizoxime Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Cefradine Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Doxacurium The agent increases the effect of muscle relaxant
Gallamine Triethiodide The agent increases the effect of muscle relaxant
Metocurine The agent increases the effect of muscle relaxant
Pancuronium The agent increases the effect of muscle relaxant
Pipecuronium The agent increases the effect of muscle relaxant
Vecuronium The agent increases the effect of muscle relaxant
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Amikacin
Synonyms: Amikacin Sulfate; Amikacin Dihydrate; Amikacin Base; Amikacina [Inn-Spanish]; Amikacine [Inn-French]; Amikacinum [Inn-Latin]; ANTIBIOTIC BB-K8; BB-K8
Drug Category: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Aminoglycosides
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved; Investigational
Other Brand Names containing Amikacin: Amicacin; Amiglyde-V; Amikavet; Amikin; Briclin;
Absorption: Rapidly absorbed after intramuscular administration
Toxicity (Overdose): Not Available
Protein Binding: 0-11%
Biotransformation: Not Available
Half Life: 2-3 hours
Dosage Forms of Amicacin: Liquid Intravenous
Chemical IUPAC Name: (2S)-4-amino-N-[(1R,2S,3S,4R,5S)-5-amino-2-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-4-amino-3,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy-4-[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-(aminomethyl)-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxan-2-yl]oxy-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-2-hydroxybutanamide
Chemical Formula: C22H43N5O13
Amikacin on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amikacin
Organisms Affected: Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria