Apo-Metronidazole - General Information
A nitroimidazole used to treat amebiasis; vaginitis; trichomonas infections; giardiasis; anaerobic bacteria; and treponemal infections. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Pharmacology of Apo-Metronidazole
Apo-Metronidazole, a synthetic antibacterial and antiprotozoal agent of the nitroimidazole class, is used against protozoa such as Trichomonas vaginalis, amebiasis, and giardiasis. Apo-Metronidazole is extremely effective against anaerobic bacterial infections and is also used to treat Crohn's disease, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and rosacea.
Apo-Metronidazole for patients
Patients using METROGELÒ (metronidazole gel) 1% should receive the following information and instructions:
1. This medication is to be used as directed.
2. It is for external use only.
3. Avoid contact with the eyes.
4. Cleanse affected area(s) before applying METROGELÒ (metronidazole gel) 1%.
5. This medication should not be used for any other condition than that for which it is prescribed.
6. Patients should report any adverse reaction to their physician.
Oral metronidazole has been reported to potentiate the anticoagulant effect of coumarin and warfarin, resulting in a prolongation of prothrombin time. Drug interactions should be kept in mind when METROGELÒ (metronidazole gel), 1% is prescribed for patients who are receiving anticoagulant treatment, although they are less likely to occur with topical metronidazole administration because of low absorption.
METROGELÒ (metronidazole gel), 1% is contraindicated in those patients with a history of hypersensitivity to metronidazole or to any other ingredient in this formulation.
Additional information about Apo-Metronidazole
Apo-Metronidazole Indication: Treatment of acute acne rosacea
Mechanism Of Action: Unionized metronidazole is selective for anaerobic bacteria due to their ability to intracellularly reduce metronidazole to its active form. This reduced metronidazole then disrupts DNA's helical structure, inhibiting bacterial nucleic acid synthesis and resulting in bacterial cell death.
Drug Interactions: Amobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Aprobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Butabarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Butalbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Butethal The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Busulfan Apo-Metronidazole increases the effect/toxicity of busulfan
Carbamazepine Apo-Metronidazole increases the effect of carbamazepine
Dihydroquinidine barbiturate The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Heptabarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Hexobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Methohexital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Methylphenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Pentobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Primidone The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Quinidine barbiturate The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Secobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Talbutal The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole
Tacrolimus Apo-Metronidazole increases the levels/toxicity of tacrolimus
Lithium Apo-Metronidazole increases the effect and toxicity of lithium
Disulfiram Possible acute psychosis and confusion
Fluorouracil Risk of 5-FU toxicity when associated with metronidazole
Amprenavir Increased risk of side effects (oral solution)
Anisindione Apo-Metronidazole increases the anticoagulant effect
Warfarin Apo-Metronidazole increases the anticoagulant effect
Acenocoumarol Apo-Metronidazole increases the anticoagulant effect
Dicumarol Apo-Metronidazole increases the anticoagulant effect
Food Interactions: Avoid alcohol.
Take with food.
Generic Name: Metronidazole
Synonyms: Metronidazole in Plastic Container; Metronidazole Hcl; Metronidazole Benzoate; Metronidazol; Metronidazolo; Methronidazole
Drug Category: Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; Anti-Infectives; Antiprotozoals
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Metronidazole: Acromona; Anagiardil; Apo-Metronidazole; Arilin; Atrivyl; Bayer 5360; Bexon; Clont; Cont; Danizol; Deflamon; Deflamon-Wirkstoff; Efloran; Elyzol; Entizol; Eumin; Flagemona; Flagesol; Flagil; Flagyl; Flagyl ER; Flagyl I.V.; Flegyl; Fossyol; Giatricol; Gineflavir; Klion; Klont; Meronidal; Metric 21; Metro Cream; Metro I.V.; Metro I.V. In Plastic Container; Metrocream; Metrogel; Metrogel-Vaginal; Metrolag; Metrolotion; Metrolyl; Metromidol; Metronidaz; Metrotop; Mexibol; Monagyl; Monasin; Nalox; Neo-Tric; Nida; Nidagel; Noritate; Novonidazol; Orvagil; Protostat; Rathimed; Sanatrichom; Satric; Takimetol; Trichazol; Trichex; Tricho Cordes; Tricho-Gynaedron; Trichocide; Trichomol; Trichopal; Trichopol; Tricocet; Tricom; Tricowas B; Trikacide; Trikamon; Trikojol; Trikozol; Trimeks; Trivazol; Vagilen; Vagimid; Vertisal; Wagitran; Zadstat;
Absorption: Well absorbed
Toxicity (Overdose): Convulsive seizures and peripheral neuropathy, the latter characterized mainly by numbness or paresthesia of an extremity, LD50=500 mg/kg/day (orally in rat)
Protein Binding: Less than 20%
Half Life: 8 hours
Dosage Forms of Apo-Metronidazole: Solution Intravenous
Tablet, extended release Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: 2-(2-methyl-5-nitroimidazol-1-yl)ethanol
Chemical Formula: C6H9N3O3
Metronidazole on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metronidazole
Organisms Affected: Bacteria and protozoa