Apo-Trihex - General Information
One of the centrally acting muscarinic antagonists used for treatment of parkinsonian disorders and drug-induced extrapyramidal movement disorders and as an antispasmodic.
Pharmacology of Apo-Trihex
Apo-Trihex is an anticholinergic used in the symptomatic treatment of all etiologic groups of parkinsonism and drug induced extrapyramidal reactions (except tardive dyskinesia). Apo-Trihex possesses both anticholinergic and antihistaminic effects, although only the former has been established as therapeutically significant in the management of parkinsonism.
Apo-Trihex for patients
Cannabinoids, barbiturates, opiates, and alcohol may have additive effects with Trihexyphenidyl, and thus, an abuse potential exists.
Concurrent use of alcohol or other CNS depressants with Trihexyphenidyl may cause increased sedative effects.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants possessing significant anticholinergic activity may intensify the anticholinergic effects of antidyskinetic agents because of the secondary anticholinergic activities of these medications.
Prophylactic administration of anticholinergic agents, such as trihexyphenidyl, as a prevention of drug-induced parkinsonism during neuroleptic therapy is not recommended. There may be an increased risk for the development of tardive dyskinesia during concomitant administration of anticholinergics and neuroleptics.
The usual dose of either trihexyphenidyl or levodopa may need to be reduced during concomitant therapy, since concomitant administration may increase drug-induced involuntary movements.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Trihexyphenidyl is administered to a nursing woman. As with other anticholinergics, trihexyphenidyl may cause suppression of lactation. Therefore, trihexyphenidyl should only be used if the expected benefit to the mother outweighs the potential risk to the infant.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
ARTANE is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to trihexyphenidyl HCl or to any of the tablet or elixir ingredients. Artane is also contraindicated in patients with narrow angle glaucoma. Blindness after long-term use due to narrow angle glaucoma has been reported.
Additional information about Apo-Trihex
Apo-Trihex Indication: Indicated for the treatment of parkinson's disease and extrapyramidal reactions caused by drugs.
Mechanism Of Action: Apo-Trihex is a selective M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. It is able to discriminate between the M1 (cortical or neuronal) and the peripheral muscarinic subtypes (cardiac and glandular). Apo-Trihex partially blocks cholinergic activity in the CNS, which is responsible for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It is also thought to increase the availability of dopamine, a brain chemical that is critical in the initiation and smooth control of voluntary muscle movement.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Trihexyphenidyl
Synonyms: Trihexifenidilo [Inn-Spanish]; Trihexylphenidyl; Trihexylphenidyle; Trihexylphenizyl; Trihexyphenidyl HCl; Trihexyphenidyle; Trihexyphenidyle [Inn-French]; Trihexyphenidylum [Inn-Latin]; Triphenidyl
Drug Category: Antiparkinson Agents; Antidyskinetics
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Trihexyphenidyl: Apo-Trihex; Artane; Artane Sequels; Benzhexol; Benzhexolum; Parkinane Retard; PMS Trihexyphenidyl; Tremin; Trihexane; Trihexy;
Absorption: Trihexyphenidyl is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
Toxicity (Overdose): Symptoms of overdose include mydriasis, dryness of mucous membranes, red face, atonic states of bowels and bladder, and hyperthermia in high doses. Central consequences are agitation, confusion, and hallucinations. An untreated overdose may be fatal, particular in children. Premortal signs are respiratory depression and cardiac arrest.
Protein Binding: Not Available
Biotransformation: Not Available
Half Life: 3.3-4.1 hours
Dosage Forms of Apo-Trihex: Tablet Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: 1-cyclohexyl-1-phenyl-3-piperidin-1-ylpropan-1-ol
Chemical Formula: C20H31NO
Trihexyphenidyl on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trihexyphenidyl
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals