Apo-Verap - General Information
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Pharmacology of Apo-Verap
Apo-Verap, a class IV antiarrhythmic agent, is used as a calcium-channel blocking (CCB) agent for the treatment of angina, hypertension, and for supraventricular tachyarrhythmias.
Apo-Verap for patients
Verapamil HCl is known as a calcium channel blocker. It is taken to treat high blood pressure, to relieve some chest pains in patients with angina, or to treat some problems with heart rhythms. Verapamil has several drug interactions, make sure your physician and pharmacist known all the medicines you are taking so they may properly advise you. Verapamil HCl is excreted in breast milk. It may be necessary to change therapy or provide an alternate to breast milk. The most common side effect is constipation. This may be relieved with dietary modification (more fiber) or laxatives. Sustained release tablets should be taken with food. They should not be broken or crushed. Doses may need some adjustment, make sure to have your condition monitored regularly.
Verapamil undergoes biotransformation by predominantly CYP3A4, however CYP1A2 and members of the CYP2C subfamily are involved in its metabolism. Coadministration of verapamil with other drugs metabolized by the above-mentioned enzymes may alter the bioavailability of either verapmail and/or the other drugs. Therefore, coadministration of narrow therapeutic index drugs with similar metabolic pathwyas as verapamil should be carefully monitored. Similarly, verapamil plasma levels in patients with hepatic cysfuction whould be carefully monitored, due to decreased clearanc of verapmil in these patients.
Alcohol: Verapamil has been found to inhibit ethanol elimination significantly, resulting in elevated blood ethanol concentrations that may prolong the intoxicating effects of alcohol.
Antineoplastic Agents: Verapamil can increase the efficacy of doxorubicin both in tissue culture systems and in patients. It raises the serum doxorubicin levels. The absorption of verapamil can be reduced by the cyclophosphamide, oncovin, procarbazine, prednisone (COPP) and the vindesine, adriamycin, cisplatin (VAC) cytotoxic drug regimens. Concomitant administration of R verapamil can decrease the clearance of paclitaxel.
Aspirin: In a few reported cases, coadministration of verapamil with aspirin has led to increased bleeding times greater than observed with aspirin alone.
Beta-Blockers: Controlled studies in small numbers of patients suggest that the concomitant use of verapamil and oral beta-adrenergic blocking agents may be beneficial in certain patients with chronic stable angina or hypertension, but available information is not sufficient to predict with confidence the effects of concurrent treatment in patients with left ventricular dysfunction or cardiac conduction abnormalities. Concomitant therapy with beta-adrenergic blockers and verapamil may result in additive negative effects on hear rate, atrioventricular conduction and/or cardiac contractility.
The combination of sustained-release verapamil and beta-adrenergic blocking agents has not been studied. However, there have been reports of excessive bradycardia and AV block, including complete heart block, when the combination has been used for the treatment of hypertension. For hypertensive patients, the risks of combined therapy may outweigh the potential benefits. The combination should be used only with caution and close monitoring.
In one study involving 15 patients treated with high doses of propranolol (median dose, 480 mg/day; range 160 to 1280 mg/day) for severe angina, with preserved left ventricular function (ejection fraction greater than 35%), the hemodynamic effects of additional therapy with verapamil HCl were assessed using invasive methods. The addition of verapamil to high-dose beta-blockers induced modest negative inotropic and chronotropic effects that were not severe enough to limit short-term (48 hours) combination therapy in this study. These modest cardiodepressant effects persisted for greater than 6 but less than 30 hours after abrupt withdrawal of beta-blockers and were closely related to plasma levels of propranolol. The primary verapamil/beta-blocker interaction in this study appeared to be hemodynamic rather than electrophysiologic.
In other studies verapamil did not generally induce significant negative inotropic, chronotropic, or dromotropic effects in patients with preserved left ventricular function receiving low or moderate doses of propranolol (less than or equal to 320 mg/day); in some patients, however, combined therapy did produce such effects. Therefore, if combined therapy is used, close surveillance of clinical status should be carried out. Combined therapy should usually be avoided in patients with atrio-ventricular conduction abnormalities and those with depressed left ventricular function.
Asymptomatic bradycardia (36 beats/min) with a wandering atrial pacemaker has been observed in a patient receiving concomitant timolol (a beta-adrenergic blocker) eyedrops and oral verapamil.
A decrease in metoprolol and propranolol clearance has been observed when either drug is administered concomitantly with verapamil. A variable effect has been seen when verapamil and atenolol were given together.
Digitalis: Clinical use of verapamil in digitalized patients has shown the combination to be well tolerated if digoxin doses are properly adjusted. However, chronic verapamil treatment can increase serum digoxin levels by 50% to 75% during the first week of therapy, and this can result in digitalis toxicity. In patients with hepatic cirrhosis, the influence of verapamil on digoxin kinetics is magnified. Verapamil may reduce total body clearance and extrarenal clearance of digitoxin by 27% and 29%, respectively. Maintenance and digitalization doses should be reduced when verapamil is administered, and the patient should be reassessed to avoid over- or underdigitalization. Whenever overdigitalization is suspected, the daily dose of digitalis should be reduced or temporarily discontinued. On discontinuation of verapamil HCl use, the patient should be reassessed to avoid underdigitalization. In previous clinical trials with other verapamil formulations related to the control of ventricular response in digitalized patients who had atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, ventricular rates below 50/min at rest occurred in 15% of patients, and asymptomatic hypotension occurred in 5% of patients.
Antihypertensive Agents: Verapamil administered concomitantly with oral antihypertensive agents (e.g., vasodilators, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretics, beta-blockers) will usually have an additive effect on lowering blood pressure. Patients receiving these combinations should be appropriately monitored. Concomitant use of agents that attenuate alpha-adrenergic function with verapamil may result in a reduction in blood pressure that is excessive in some patients. Such an effect was observed in one study following the concomitant administration of verapamil and prazosin.
Disopyramide: Until data on possible interactions between verapamil and disopyramide are obtained, disopyramide should not be administered within 48 hours before or 24 hours after verapamil administration.
Flecainide: A study in healthy volunteers showed that the concomitant administration of flecainide and verapamil may have additive effects on myocardial contractility, AV conduction, and repolarization. Concomitant therapy with flecainide and verapamil may result in additive negative inotropic effect and prolongation of atrioventricular conduction.
Quinidine: In a small number of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (IHSS), concomitant use of verapamil and quinidine resulted in significant hypotension. Until further data are obtained, combined therapy of verapamil and quinidine in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy should probably be avoided.
The electrophysiologic effects of quinidine and verapamil on AV conduction were studied in 8 patients. Verapamil significantly counteracted the effects of quinidine on AV conduction. There has been a report of increased quinidine levels during verapamil therapy.
Nitrates: Verapamil has been given concomitantly with short- and long-acting nitrates without any undesirable drug interactions. The pharmacologic profile of both drugs and the clinical experience suggest beneficial interactions.
Cimetidine: The interaction between cimetidine and chronically administered verapamil has not been studied. Variable results on clearance have been obtained in acute studies of healthy volunteers; clearance of verapamil was either reduced or unchanged.
Lithium: Increased sensitivity to the effects of lithium (neurotoxicity) has been reported during concomitant verapamil-lithium therapy; lithium levels have been observed sometimes to increase, sometimes to decrease, and sometimes to be unchanged. Patients receiving both drugs must be monitored carefully.
Rifampin: Therapy with rifampin may markedly reduce oral verapamil bioavailability.
Phenobarbital: Phenobarbital therapy may increase verapamil clearance.
Cyclosporin: Verapamil therapy may increase serum levels of cyclosporin.
Theophylline: Verapamil may inhibit the clearance and increase the plasma levels of theophylline.
Inhalation Anesthetics: Animal experiments have shown that inhalation anesthetics depress cardiovascular activity by decreasing the inward movement of calcium ions. When used concomitantly, inhalation anesthetics and calcium antagonists, such as verapamil, should each be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Clinical data and animal studies suggest that verapamil may potentiate the activity of neuromuscular blocking agents (curare-like and depolarizing). It may be necessary to decrease the dose of verapamil and/or the dose of the neuromuscular blocking agent when the drugs are used concomitantly.
Verapamil HCl is contraindicated in:
1. Severe left ventricular dysfunction.
2. Hypotension (systolic pressure less than 90 mm Hg) or cardiogenic shock.
3. Sick sinus syndrome (except in patients with a functioning artificial ventricular pacemaker).
4. Second- or third-degree AV block (except in patients with a functioning artificial ventricular pacemaker).
5. Patients with atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation and an accessory bypass tract (e.g., Wolff-Parkinson-White, Lown-Ganong-Levine syndromes).
6. Patients with known hypersensitivity to verapamil HCl.
Additional information about Apo-Verap
Apo-Verap Indication: For the treatment of hypertension and angina.
Mechanism Of Action: Possibly by deforming the channel, inhibiting ion-control gating mechanisms, and/or interfering with the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, verapamil, like diltiazem, inhibits the influx of extracellular calcium across both the myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cell membranes. The resultant inhibition of the contractile processes of the myocardial smooth muscle cells leads to dilation of the coronary and systemic arteries,improved oxygen delivery to the myocardial tissue, and decreased total peripheral resistance, systemic blood pressure, and afterload.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Avoid alcohol.
Take with food.
Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).
Avoid taking with grapefruit juice.
Avoid natural licorice.
Generic Name: Verapamil
Synonyms: Verapamil [Usan-Ban-Inn]; Verapamil HCl; Verapamilo [Inn-Spanish]; Verapamilum [Inn-Latin]
Drug Category: Vasodilator Agents; Antiarrhythmic Agents; Calcium-channel blocking agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Verapamil: Apo-Verap; Arpamyl; Berkatens; Calan; Calan SR; Cardiagutt; Cardibeltin; Cordilox; Covera-HS; Dignover; Dilacoran; Drosteakard; Geangin; Iproveratril; Isoptimo; Isoptin; Isoptin SR; Novo-Veramil; NU-Verap; Quasar; Securon; Univer; Vasolan; Veracim; Veramex; Veraptin; Verelan; Verelan PM; Verexamil;
Toxicity (Overdose): LD50=8 mg/kg (i.v. in mice)
Protein Binding: 90%
Biotransformation: Not Available
Half Life: 2.8-7.4 hours
Dosage Forms of Apo-Verap: Solution Intravenous
Tablet, extended release Oral
Capsule, extended release Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl-methylamino]-2-propan-2-ylpentanenitrile
Chemical Formula: C27H38N2O4
Verapamil on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verapamil
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals