Aponorin - General Information
A thiazide diuretic with properties similar to those of hydrochlorothiazide. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p830)
Pharmacology of Aponorin
Trichloromethiazide is indicated as adjunctive therapy in edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy. Trichloromethiazide has also been found useful in edema due to various forms of renal dysfunction such as nephrotic syndrome, acute glomer-ulonephritis, and chronic renal failure. Trichloromethiazide is also indicated in the management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effectiveness of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe forms of hypertension. Like other thiazides, Trichloromethiazide promotes water loss from the body (diuretics). They inhibit Na+/Cl- reabsorption from the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys. Thiazides also cause loss of potassium and an increase in serum uric acid. Thiazides are often used to treat hypertension, but their hypotensive effects are not necessarily due to their diuretic activity. Thiazides have been shown to prevent hypertension-related morbidity and mortality although the mechanism is not fully understood. Thiazides cause vasodilation by activating calcium-activated potassium channels (large conductance) in vascular smooth muscles and inhibiting various carbonic anhydrases in vascular tissue.
Additional information about Aponorin
Aponorin Indication: Used in the treatment of oedema (including that associated with heart failure) and hypertension.
Mechanism Of Action: Aponorin appears to block the active reabsorption of chloride and possibly sodium in the ascending loop of Henle, altering electrolyte transfer in the proximal tubule. This results in excretion of sodium, chloride, and water and, hence, diuresis. As a diuretic, Trichloromethiazide inhibits active chloride reabsorption at the early distal tubule via the Na-Cl cotransporter, resulting in an increase in the excretion of sodium, chloride, and water. Thiazides like Trichloromethiazide also inhibit sodium ion transport across the renal tubular epithelium through binding to the thiazide sensitive sodium-chloride transporter. This results in an increase in potassium excretion via the sodium-potassium exchange mechanism. The antihypertensive mechanism of Trichloromethiazide is less well understood although it may be mediated through its action on carbonic anhydrases in the smooth muscle or through its action on the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel, also found in the smooth muscle.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Trichlormethiazide
Synonyms: Not Available
Drug Category: Diuretics; Antihypertensive Agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Trichlormethiazide: Achletin; Anatran; Anistadin; Aponorin; Carvacron; Chlopolidine; Cretonin; Diu-Hydrin; Diurazida; Diurese; Diuroral; Esmarin; Eurinol; Fluitran; Flurese; Flutra; Gangesol; Hydrotrichlorothiazide; Intromene; Isestran; Kubacron; Metahydrin; Metatensin; Nakva; Naqua; Naquasone; Salurin; Schebitran; Tachionin; Tolcasone; Trichlorex; Trichlormas; Trichlormetazid; Trichlormethiazid; Trichlormethiazide W/ Reserpine; Trichloromethiadiazide; Trichloromethiazide; Triclordiuride; Triclormetiazide; Triflumen;
Absorption: Not Available
Toxicity (Overdose): Oral Rat LD50 = 5600 mg/kg, oral Mouse LD50 = 2600 mg/kg
Protein Binding: Not Available
Biotransformation: Not Available
Half Life: Not Available
Dosage Forms of Aponorin: Not Available
Chemical IUPAC Name: 6-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[e][1,2,4]thiadiazine-7-sulfonamide
Chemical Formula: C8H8Cl3N3O4S2
Trichlormethiazide on Wikipedia: Not Available
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals