Argamine - General Information
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Pharmacology of Argamine
Studies have shown that is has improved immune responses to bacteria, viruses and tumor cells; promotes wound healing and regeneration of the liver; causes the release of growth hormones; considered crucial for optimal muscle growth and tissue repair.
Argamine for patients
Cyclosporine - L-arginine may counteract the antinaturetic effect of cyclosporin. Ibuprofen - L-arginine may increase the absorption of ibuprofen if taken concomitantly. Organic nitrates - L-arginine supplements theoretically may potentiate the effects of organic nitrates if taken concomitantly. Sildenafil citrate - Theoretically, L-arginine supplements taken concomitantly with sildenafil citrate, may potentiate the effects of the drug.
Supplemental L-arginine is contraindicated in those with the rare genetic disorder argininemia. It is also contraindicated in those hypersensitive to any component of an arginine-containing preparation.
Additional information about Argamine
Argamine Indication: Used for nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.
Mechanism Of Action: Many of supplemental L-arginine's activities, including its possible anti-atherogenic actions, may be accounted for by its role as the precursor to nitric oxide or NO. NO is produced by all tissues of the body and plays very important roles in the cardiovascular system, immune system and nervous system. NO is formed from L-arginine via the enzyme nitric oxide synthase or synthetase (NOS), and the effects of NO are mainly mediated by 3,'5' -cyclic guanylate or cyclic GMP. NO activates the enzyme guanylate cyclase, which catalyzes the synthesis of cyclic GMP from guanosine triphosphate or GTP. Cyclic GMP is converted to guanylic acid via the enzyme cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase. NOS is a heme-containing enzyme with some sequences similar to cytochrome P-450 reductase. Several isoforms of NOS exist, two of which are constitutive and one of which is inducible by immunological stimuli. The constitutive NOS found in the vascular endothelium is designated eNOS and that present in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system is designated nNOS. The form of NOS induced by immunological or inflammatory stimuli is known as iNOS. iNOS may be expressed constitutively in select tissues such as lung epithelium. All the nitric oxide synthases use NADPH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) and oxygen (O2) as cosubstrates, as well as the cofactors FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), FMN (flavin mononucleotide), tetrahydrobiopterin and heme. Interestingly, ascorbic acid appears to enhance NOS activity by increasing intracellular tetrahydrobiopterin. eNOS and nNOS synthesize NO in response to an increased concentration of calcium ions or in some cases in response to calcium-independent stimuli, such as shear stress. In vitro studies of NOS indicate that the Km of the enzyme for L-arginine is in the micromolar range. The concentration of L-arginine in endothelial cells, as well as in other cells, and in plasma is in the millimolar range. What this means is that, under physiological conditions, NOS is saturated with its L-arginine substrate. In other words, L-arginine would not be expected to be rate-limiting for the enzyme, and it would not appear that supraphysiological levels of L-arginine which could occur with oral supplementation of the amino acid^would make any difference with regard to NO production. The reaction would appear to have reached its maximum level. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated that, under certain conditions, e.g. hypercholesterolemia, supplemental L-arginine could enhance endothelial-dependent vasodilation and NO production.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: L-Arginine
Synonyms: Arginine; (S)-2-Amino-5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]pentanoic acid; 2-Amino-5-guanidinovaleric acid; L-(+)-Arginine; L-a-Amino-d-guanidinovaleric acid; L-Arg
Drug Category: Dietary supplement; Micronutrient; Conditionally Essential Amino Acids
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Nutraceutical; Approved
Other Brand Names containing L-Arginine: R-Gene 10 (Pharmacia Corp.); Levargin; Minophagen A; Argivene; Argamine; Detoxargin;
Absorption: Absorbed from the lumen of the small intestine into the enterocytes. Absorption is efficient and occurs by an active transport mechanism.
Toxicity (Overdose): Oral supplementation with L-arginine at doses up to 15 grams daily are generally well tolerated. The most common adverse reactions of higher doses from 15 to 30 grams daily are nausea, abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Some may experience these symptoms at lower doses.
Protein Binding: Not Available
Biotransformation: Some metabolism of L-arginine takes place in the enterocytes. L-arginine not metabolized in the enterocytes enters the portal circulation from whence it is transported to the liver, where again some portion of the amino acid is metabolized.
Half Life: Not Available
Dosage Forms of Argamine: Liquid Intravenous
Chemical IUPAC Name: (2S)-2-amino-5-(diaminomethylideneamino)pentanoic acid
Chemical Formula: C6H14N4O2
L-Arginine on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L-Arginine
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals