Ativan - General Information
A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.
Pharmacology of Ativan
Ativan, a benzodiazepine not transformed to active metabolites, is used to treat anxiety, status epilepticus, and for sedation induction and anterograde amnesia.
Ativan for patients
Lorazepam is a benzodiazepine used for the treatment of anxiety, anxiety with depression, and insomnia. Inform your physician if you are pregnant or nursing. Lorazepam may cause dizziness and drowsiness; use caution while driving or operating hazardous machinery. Do not take any other sedating drugs or drink alcohol while taking this medication. Lorazepam may be habit forming. It is advisable that patients consult with their physician before changing the dose. Withdrawal symptoms may occur after you stop taking it. This medication may be taken with or without food.
Tablets: The benzodiazepines, including lorazepam, produce CNS-depressant effects when administered with such medications as barbiturates or alcohol.
Injection: Lorazepam injection, like other injectable benzodiazepines, produces depression of the central nervous system when administered with ethyl alcohol, phenothiazines, barbiturates, MAO inhibitors, and other antidepressants.When scopolamine is used concomitantly with injectable lorazepam, an increased incidence of sedation, hallucinations, and irrational behavior has been observed.
Tablets: Lorazepam is contraindicated in patients with known sensitivity to the benzodiazepines or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma.
Injection: Lorazepam injection is indicated in adult patients for preanesthetic medication, producing sedation (sleepiness or drowsiness), relief of anxiety, and a decreased ability to recall events related to the day of surgery. It is most useful in those patients who are anxious about their surgical procedure and who would prefer to have diminished recall of the day of surgery.
Additional information about Ativan
Ativan Indication: For the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety or anxiety associated with depressive symptoms
Mechanism Of Action: Ativan binds to central benzodiazepine receptors which interact allosterically with GABA receptors. This potentiates the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, increasing the inhibition of the ascending reticular activating system and blocking the cortical and limbic arousal that occurs following stimulation of the reticular pathways.
Drug Interactions: Clozapine Increased risk of toxicity
Ethotoin Possible increased levels of the hydantoin, decrease of benzodiazepine
Fosphenytoin Possible increased levels of the hydantoin, decrease of benzodiazepine
Mephenytoin Possible increased levels of the hydantoin, decrease of benzodiazepine
Phenytoin Possible increased levels of the hydantoin, decrease of benzodiazepine
Kava Kava increases the effect of the benzodiazepine
Food Interactions: Avoid alcohol.
Take with food.
Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).
Generic Name: Lorazepam
Synonyms: (+/-)-Lorazepam; L-Lorazepam Acetate; O-Chlorooxazepam; O-Chloroxazepam
Drug Category: Anti-anxiety Agents; Hypnotics and Sedatives; Antiemetics; Anticonvulsants; Benzodiazepines
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Lorazepam: Almazine; Alzapam; Anxiedin; Aplacassee; Ativan; Bonatranquan; Delormetazepam; Emotival; Idalprem; Lorabenz; Lorax; Loraz; Lorazepam Intensol; Lorsilan; Pro Dorm; Psicopax; Punktyl; Quait; Securit; Sedatival; Sedazin; Somagerol; Tavor; Temesta; Wypax;
Absorption: Readily absorbed with an absolute bioavailability of 90%.
Toxicity (Overdose): Somnolence, confusion, and coma, LD50=3178mg/kg (orally in mice).
Protein Binding: 85%
Half Life: 12 hours
Dosage Forms of Ativan: Liquid Intravenous
Chemical IUPAC Name: 7-chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
Chemical Formula: C15H10Cl2N2O2
Lorazepam on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorazepam
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals