Axepim - General Information
Axepim is a fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic developed in 1994. Axepim has an extended spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with greater activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms than third-generation agents. Axepim is usually reserved to treat severe nosocomial pneumonia, infections caused by multi-resistant microorganisms (e.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia.
Pharmacology of Axepim
Axepim is a fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic developed in 1994. Axepim has an extended spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with greater activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms than third-generation agents. Axepim has good activity against important pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and multiple drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. A particular strength is its activity against Enterobacteriaceae. Whereas other cephalosporins are degraded by many plasmid- and chromosome-mediated beta-lactamases, cefepime is stable and is a front line agent when infection with Enterobacteriaceae is known or suspected
Axepim for patients
Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including MAXIPIME should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (eg, the common cold). When MAXIPIME is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by MAXIPIME or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Renal function should be monitored carefully if high doses of aminoglycosides are to be administered with MAXIPIME because of the increased potential of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Nephrotoxicity has been reported following concomitant administration of other cephalosporins with potent diuretics such as furosemide.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
The administration of cefepime may result in a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine when using Clinitest® tablets. It is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions (such as Clinistix® or Tes-Tape® ) be used.
MAXIPIME (cefepime hydrochloride) is contraindicated in patients who have shown immediate hypersensitivity reactions to cefepime or the cephalosporin class of antibiotics, penicillins or other betalactam antibiotics.
Additional information about Axepim
Axepim Indication: For the treatment of pneumonia (moderate to severe) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including cases associated with concurrent bacteremia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Enterobacter species. Also for empiric treatment of febrile neutropenic patients and uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections (including pyelonephritis) caused by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae, when the infection is severe, or caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Proteus mirabilis, when the infection is mild to moderate, including cases associated with concurrent bacteremia with these microorganisms. Also for the treatment of uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains only) or Streptococcus pyogenes and complicated intra-abdominal infections (used in combination with metronidazole) caused by Escherichia coli, viridans group streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter species, or Bacteroides fragilis.
Mechanism Of Action: Cephalosporins are bactericidal and have the same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillins). Cephalosporins disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. The peptidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity, especially in Gram-positive organisms. The final transpeptidation step in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan is facilitated by transpeptidases known as penicillin binding proteins (PBPs).
Drug Interactions: Probenecid Probenecid increases the antibiotic's level
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Cefepime
Synonyms: Cefepima [spanish]; Cefepimum [latin]
Drug Category: Antibacterial Agents; Cephalosporins
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Cefepime: Maxipime; Maxcef; Cepimax; Cepimex; Axepim;
Absorption: The absolute bioavailability of cefepime after an IM dose of 50 mg/kg was 82.3 (±15)% in eight patients.
Toxicity (Overdose): Symptoms of overdose include seizures, encephalopathy, and neuromuscular excitability.
Protein Binding: The serum protein binding of cefepime is approximately 20% and is independent of its concentration in serum.
Biotransformation: Hepatic. Cefepime is metabolized to N-methylpyrrolidine (NMP) which is rapidly converted to the N-oxide (NMP-N-oxide).
Half Life: 2.0 (± 0.3) hours in normal patients. The average half-life in patients requiring hemodialysis was 13.5 (± 2.7) hours and in patients requiring continuous peritoneal dialysis was 19.0 (± 2.0) hours.
Dosage Forms of Axepim: Powder, for solution Intramuscular
Powder, for solution Intravenous
Powder, for solution Intramuscular
Powder, for solution Intravenous
Chemical IUPAC Name: (6R,7R)-7-[[(2Z)-2-(2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)-2-methoxyiminoacetyl]amino]-3-[(1-methylpyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)methyl]-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate
Chemical Formula: C19H24N6O5S2
Cefepime on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cefepime
Organisms Affected: Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria