Axid - General Information
A histamine H2 receptor antagonist with low toxicity that inhibits gastric acid secretion. The drug is used for the treatment of duodenal ulcers.
Pharmacology of Axid
Axid is a competitive, reversible inhibitor of histamine at the histamine H2-receptors, particularly those in the gastric parietal cells. By inhibiting the action of histamine on stomach cells, nizatidine reduces stomach acid production. Axid had no demonstrable antiandrogenic action. Full-dose therapy for the problems treated by nizatidine lasts no longer than 8 weeks. It has been demonstrated that treatment with a reduced dose of nizatidine is effective as maintenance therapy following healing of active duodenal ulcers.
Axid for patients
Nizatidine is known as a histamine blocker or an H2-receptor blocker. It is used to treat
ulcers. Although this drug blocks histamine in the stomach, it cannot be used in place of
antihistamine used to treat runny noses and watery eyes. This drug works primarily in the
stomach and intestines. In most cases therapy is needed for 4-8 weeks to produce ulcer
healing. Some patients may need long term preventative therapy with lower doses taken at
bedtime. Nizatidine has no clinically significant drug interactions and few side effects.
The most common side effects reported include headache and abdominal pain. This medication
must be taken as prescribed for ulcers to heal. You may be asked to follow a certain diet
that will not aggravate your ulcer or cause a new one. If you choose to also take antacids,
take them two hours before or after taking this medication.
No interactions have been observed between nizatidine and theophylline, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, lidocaine, phenytoin, and warfarin. Nizatidine does not inhibit the cytochrome P-450-linked drug-metabolizing enzyme system; therefore, drug interactions mediated by inhibition of hepatic metabolism are not expected to occur. In patients given very high doses (3900 mg) of aspirin daily, increases in serum salicylate levels were seen when nizatidine, 150 mg b.i.d., was administered concurrently.
Nizatidine is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug. Because cross sensitivity in this class of compounds has been observed, H2-receptor antagonists, including nizatidine, should not be administered to patients with a history of hypersensitivity to other H2-receptor antagonists.
Additional information about Axid
Axid Indication: For the treatment of acid-reflux disorders (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, active benign gastric ulcer, and active duodenal ulcer.
Mechanism Of Action: Axid competes with histamine for binding at the H2-receptors on the gastric basolateral membrane of parietal cells. Competitive inhibition results in reduction of basal and nocturnal gastric acid secretions. The drug also decreases the gastric acid response to stimuli such as food, caffeine, insulin, betazole, or pentagastrin.
Drug Interactions: Atazanavir This gastric pH modifier decreases the levels/effects of atazanavir
Enoxacin The agent decreases the absorption of enoxacin
Itraconazole The anti-H2 decreases the absorption of the imidazole
Ketoconazole The anti-H2 decreases the absorption of the imidazole
Food Interactions: Avoid alcohol.
Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).
No iron, zinc or fluoride within 2 hours of taking this medication.
May take Vitamin D.
Do not take Aluminum or magnesium antacids or supplements while on this medication.
Generic Name: Nizatidine
Synonyms: Not Available
Drug Category: Anti-Ulcer Agents; Histamine H2 Antagonists
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Nizatidine: Acinon; Antizid; Axid; Axid Ar; Calmaxid; Cronizat; Distaxid; Galitidin; Gastrax; Naxidine; Niatidine; Nizatidina [Spanish]; Nizatidine [Usan-Ban-Inn-Jan]; Nizatidinum [Latin]; Nizax; Nizaxid; Panaxid; Splendil Er; Tazac; Ulcosol; Ulxid; Zanizal; Zinga;
Absorption: Rapid (bioavailability of nizatidine exceeds 70%)
Toxicity (Overdose): Oral, rat LD50: 301 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include cholinergic-type effects including lacrimation, salivation, emesis, miosis, and diarrhea.
Protein Binding: 35%
Biotransformation: Hepatic. Less than 7% of an oral dose is metabolized as N2-monodes-methylnizatidine, an H2-receptor antagonist, which is the principal metabolite excreted in the urine. Other likely metabolites are the N2-oxide (less than 5% of the dose) and the S-oxide (less than 6% of the dose).
Half Life: 1-2 hours
Dosage Forms of Axid: Capsule Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: (E)-N-[2-[[2-(dimethylaminomethyl)-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]methylsulfanyl]ethyl]-N'-methyl-2-nitroethene-1,1-diamine
Chemical Formula: C12H21N5O2S2
Nizatidine on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nizatidine
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals