Baciim - General Information
Baciim is a mixture of related cyclic polypeptides produced by organisms of the licheniformis group of Bacillus subtilis var Tracy. Its unique name derives from the fact that the bacillus producing it was first isolated in 1943 from a knee scrape from a girl named Margaret Tracy. As a toxic and difficult-to-use antibiotic, bacitracin doesn't work well orally. However, it is very effective topically.
Baciim is synthesised via the so-called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), which means that ribosomes are not involved in its synthesis.
Pharmacology of Baciim
Baciim is a mixture of related cyclic polypeptides produced by organisms of the licheniformis group of Bacillus subtilis var Tracy. As a polypeptide, toxic, and difficult to use chemical, Baciim doesn't work well orally, however is very effective topically. Baciim exerts pronounced antibacterial action in vitro against a variety of gram-positive and a few gram-negative organisms. However, among systemic diseases, only staphylococcal infections qualify for consideration of bacitracin therapy.
Baciim for patients
Nephrotoxicity: Bacitracin in parenteral (intramuscular) therapy may cause renal failure due to tubular and glomerular necrosis. Its use should be restricted to infants with staphylococcal pneumonia and empyema when due to organisms shown to be susceptible to bacitracin. It should be used only where adequate laboratory facilities are available and when constant supervision of the patient is possible. Renal function should be carefully determined prior to and daily during therapy. The recommended daily dose should not be exceeded and fluid intake and urinary output maintained at proper levels to avoid kidney toxicity. If renal toxicity occurs the drug should be discontinued. The concurrent use of other nephrotoxic drugs, particularly streptomycin, kanamycin, polymyxin B, polymyxin E (colistin), and neomycin should be avoided.
See "Warning" for precautions in regard to kidney toxicity associated with intramuscular use of bacitracin.
Adequate fluid intake should be maintained orally, or if necessary, by parenteral method.
As with other antibiotics, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, appropriate therapy should be instituted.Prescribing Bacitracin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
No information provided.
This drug is contraindicated in those individuals with a history of previous hypersensitivity or toxic reaction to it.
Additional information about Baciim
Baciim Indication: For the treatment of infants with pneumonia and empyema caused by staphylococci shown to be susceptible to the drug. Also used in ointment form for topical treatment of a variety of localized skin and eye infections, as well as for the prevention of wound infections.
Mechanism Of Action: Baciim intereferes with the dephosphorylation of the 55-carbon, biphosphate lipid transport molecule, which carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall outside the inner membrane for construction.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Bacitracin
Synonyms: Not Available
Drug Category: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Anti-Infective Agents, Local
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Bacitracin: Baci-rx; Baciguent; Baciim; Bacitracin Bacillus licheniformis; Ziba-rx;
Absorption: Absorption of bacitracin following intramuscular injection is rapid and complete. Absorption from the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration is not appreciable. Absorption following topical application is negligible.
Toxicity (Overdose): Oral, mouse: LD50 = >3750 mg/kg.
Protein Binding: Not Available
Biotransformation: Not Available
Half Life: Not Available
Dosage Forms of Baciim: Powder, for solution Intramuscular
Chemical IUPAC Name: (4R)-4-[[(2S)-2-[[2-[(1S)-1-amino-2-methylbutyl]4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazole-5-carbonyl]amino]-4-methylpentanoyl]amino]-5-[[(2S)-1-[[(3S,6R,9S,12R,15S,18R,21S)-3-(2-amino-2-oxoethyl)-18-(3-aminopropyl)-15-butan-2-yl-6-(carboxymethyl)-9-(3H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-2,5,8,11,14,17,20-heptaoxo-12-(phenylmethyl)-1,4,7,10,13,16,19-heptazacyclopentacos-21-yl]amino]-3-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-5-oxopentanoic acid
Chemical Formula: C66H103N17O16S
Bacitracin on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacitracin
Organisms Affected: Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria