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CA 19-9, CA 72-4, CA 50, CA 15-3 and CA 125 tumor markers (cancer antigens)

СА 19-9 tumor marker

Indications for the CA 19-9 cancer antigen test:

  1. Diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma
  2. Diagnosis of gastric carcinoma
  3. Pancreatic carcinoma and pancreatitis differential diagnosis

CA 19-9 cancer antigen is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 10 kDa, is a hapten antigen of blood group Lewis (a). CA 19-9 cancer antigen antigen detected in the epithelium of the fetal gastrointestinal tract. Minor concentrations found in the mucous cells in adults, as well as the pancreas, liver and lungs.

Upper level rate of CA 19-9 cancer antigen is 37 U/ml.

Increasing the concentration of cancer antigen CA 19-9 in serum is observed in pancreatic carcinoma, however, no correlation between the concentration of CA 19-9 cancer antigen and tumor weight. This tumor marker is excreted exclusively in the bile, and therefore even a slight stagnation of bile (cholestasis) may be the cause of a significant increase in the level of CA 19-9 cancer antigen. In these cases, it is necessary to control the activity of γ-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase. His definition is useful in some CEA-negative cases of carcinoma of the colon.

The level of CA 19-9 cancer antigen may be elevated in of the gastrointestinal tract and liver inflammatory processes (usually up to 100 U/ml, at least up to 500 U/ml) in cystic fibrosis.

СА 72-4 tumor marker

Indications for the СА 72-4 cancer antigen test:

  • Testing and monitoring of gastric carcinoma and mucinous ovarian cancer

CA 72-4 cancer antigen is mucinous glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 400 kDa, is detected in the epithelial cells of the fetus. In adult tissues in norm practically is not defined. Upper level rate of СА 72-4 cancer antigen is 2.0-4.0 U/ml.

For the СА 72-4 cancer antigen is characterized by high tumor specificity. An elevated level of СА 72-4 cancer antigen is observed in the serum of patients with gastric carcinoma. In this pathology it is recommended combined with CEA determination, which provides good sensitivity and specificity.

The level of CA 72-4 cancer antigen is increased in mucinous ovarian cancer. Occasionally an elevated level of CA 72-4 cancer antigen (about 7 U/ml) observed in benign and inflammatory processes.

 

СА 50 tumor marker

Indications for the СА 50 cancer antigen test:

  • Testing and monitoring of pancreatic carcinoma therapy effectiveness

CA 50 cancer antigen is a glycolipid. Upper level rate of CA 50 cancer antigen is 23 U/ml.

An elevated level of CA 50 cancer antigen (100 U/ml and above) are found in liver cirrhosis and diseases of the pancreas (about 18% of patients). The use of CA 50 cancer antigen has no advantage over CA 19-9 cancer antigen.

 

СА 15-3 tumor marker

Indications for the СА 15-3 cancer antigen test:

СА 15-3 cancer antigen is mucinous glycoprotein glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 300000 Da. Upper level rate of СА 15-3 cancer antigen — not above 28 U/ml in healthy non-pregnant women.

High concentrations of СА 15-3 cancer antigen detected with high specificity for breast carcinoma. For the ovarian, cervical and endometrial tumors the increased level of this marker is observed only in the later stages of tumor development. In benign breast diseases and gastrointestinal tract the concentration of СА 15-3 cancer antigen is not increased. Moderate increase of this marker is observed in the third trimester of pregnancy (up to 50 U/ml) and sometimes in liver cirrhosis (also up to 50 U/ml).

 

СА 125 tumor marker

Indications for the СА 125 cancer antigen tes:

  • Testing and monitoring of serous ovarian carcinoma therapy effectiveness

СА 125 cancer antigen is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 200000 Da, is a differentiation antigen that originates from derivatives of coelomic epithelium tissues of the fetus. Upper level rate of СА 125 cancer antigen is 35 U/ml, but where you need greater specificity, this limit is raised to 65 U/ml.

An elevated level of СА 125 cancer antigen is observed in the serum of patients with ovarian cancer. However, a substantial increase is observed in tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, bronchial carcinoma, breast carcinoma. Sometimes the level of СА 125 cancer antigen is elevated in inflammatory processes, exciting the appendages, and in benign gynecological tumors. Note a slight increase of this marker in pregnancy, in autoimmune diseases, hepatitis, chronic pancreatitis and liver cirrhosis.