Cystitis, urocystitis — is an inflammation of the bladder wall - the most common urological disease, which occurs more often in women is due to the fact that they are shorter and wider urethra (male urethra is longer and narrower, so the infection is often delayed it was there, causing urethritis).
Cystitis are acute and chronic. Cysts are infectious and noninfectious. Cystitis noninfectious origin occur during stimulation of the bladder mucosa excreted in the urine of chemicals, including drugs after prolonged use at high doses (eg, fenatsitinovy or urotropinovy cystitis).
The cause of noninfectious cystitis may also burns (accidental introduction into the bladder of concentrated solutions of chemicals or solutions with a temperature above 45 ° when it is washed), mucosal lesions foreign body (eg, urinary stones), etc.
But as a rule, the basis of cystitis is an infection. Infectious agents for cystitis can penetrate into the bladder with inflammatory processes in the urethra or external genitalia (ascending infection), kidney disease (descending infection, such as tuberculosis, kidney), in the presence of foci of infection in other organs and tissues (with blood or lymph).
Infectious agent in cystitis may be E. coli, Proteus, Staphylococcus, and various fungi, Trichomonas and other microorganisms. Because the mucosa of the bladder has a considerable resistance to infections, one infection is usually not enough for the development of cystitis. Need for the development of cystitis are other predisposing factors:
- state after a serious illness or operations
- breach outflow and stagnation of urine, which may occur against the background of some other diseases of urogenital organs (prostate adenoma, narrowing of the urethra, etc.)
Acute cystitis occurs suddenly some time after hypothermia, or exposure of another provoking factor. In this case, the inflammatory process usually affects only the lining of the bladder. The main symptoms of acute cystitis are frequent painful urination, pain in lower abdomen, the presence of pus in the urine (based on results of laboratory studies). The intensity of pain during urination in patients with cystitis increases, the pain takes almost constant, patients (especially children) are sometimes not able to hold urine.
Sometimes all these phenomena of acute cystitis disappear within 2-3 days without specific treatment. However, most acute cystitis, even when time begun treatment lasts 6-8 days. Longer for cystitis indicates the presence of concomitant diseases (eg, enlarged prostate).
Chronic cystitis caused by inappropriate treatment of acute cystitis, while in the process involves the entire wall of the bladder. The main manifestation of chronic cystitis are the same as the manifestations of acute cystitis, but less pronounced.
Chronic cystitis occurs either as a continuous process with constant more or less pronounced signs of illness, or has a recurrent course, when the acute illness alternate with lucid intervals.
The diagnosis of cystitis is made by a physician examination and laboratory data (large number of leukocytes in the urine analysis tests). In the presence of a chronic process is carried out cystoscopy (when it is contraindicated in acute cystitis) - study of the internal state of the bladder using a special apparatus.
As the bladder wall is judged on the extent of his defeat, identify tumors, stones, fistulas, ulcers of the bladder, symptoms of kidney and ureter.
If necessary, use other methods for urological examination for verification of cystitis.
In acute cystitis patients need bed rest. Appointed by drinking plenty of fluids and a diet with the exception of sharp and salty foods and alcoholic beverages.
In acute cystitis useful application of a decoction of herbs (kidney tea, bearberry), providing a diuretic effect. For relieving pain in a patient with cystitis apply warm baths, heating pad. With a pronounced soreness can be applied means relieving muscle spasms of the bladder (but-silo, papaverine). In acute cystitis is also used antibiotics.
Treatment of chronic cystitis is directed primarily at restoring normal urine flow (treatment of enlarged prostate, narrowing of the urethra, etc.). Be sure to carry identification and treatment of all foci of infection in the body (eg, chronic tonsillitis). Antibiotic treatment of chronic cystitis is carried out only after obtaining urine culture, to identify infectious agent and its sensitivity to antibiotics.
If you have any questions about the diagnosis or treatment of acute or chronic cystitis, you can specify them with our urologist or a nephrologist on the phone: (499) 130-08-09
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