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Kidney stones, urolithiasis


Kidney stones, urolithiasis

Urinary stone disease (Urolithiasis) - a disease in which the formation of stones in the organs of the urinary system, in most cases, the kidneys and bladder.

The main reason for the emergence and development of urolithiasis (IBC) is a metabolic disorder that leads to the formation of insoluble salts that form stones. Number of stones and their location can be very different.

Young people most often have stones in the ureter and kidney damage, bladder stones often diagnosed in the elderly and children.

The main predisposing factors of urolithiasis (IBC) include urologists:

  • anatomical malformations of the urinary tract
  • nefrits or nefrosis syndromes
  • chronic diseases of the urogenital system (pyelonephritis, cystitis, an inflammation of the prostate, etc.)
  • chronic diseases of the digestive system (gastritis, colitis, etc.)
  • specific composition of food and water, etc.

Kidney staghorn stone in urolithiasis, detected on abdominal CT scan.

Kidney staghorn stone in urolithiasis, detected on abdominal CT scan.


Diagnosis of kidney stones, urolithiasis

When diagnosing urolithiasis (IBC), depending on the reasons for the formation and composition of the stones are divided into three types of lithogenesis:

  • calcium - up to 70% of patients
  • metabolic (urine acid) - up to 12%
  • infected - 15%
  • patients with cystine stones - 2 - 3%

Determination of the mineral composition of rocks is necessary to prevent recurrence of stone formation. Patients with recurrent stone formation in kidney stone disease (ICD), after ascertaining the causes of stone formation is assigned a set of measures (metafilaktika) to prevent recurrence of stone formation.

Depending on the location of the stone patients with urolithiasis (ICD) may complain of different symptoms, but the main ones for this disease are:

  • paroxysmal pain
  • blood in urine
  • deterioration of general condition

When kidney stones pain often occurs during exercise, patients may worsen other diseases of the urinary tract. If the stone is located in the bladder, the patient with urolithiasis (IBC) bother frequent painful urination, and pain that occur while driving.

When placing a stone in the ureter patients with urolithiasis (IBC) is experiencing frequent urination, pain, rolling from the waist on the inside of the thigh, groin and lower abdomen.

If the stone blocked the lumen of the ureter and kidney accumulated urine, renal colic begin. A patient with urolithiasis (IBC) has a severe back pain, rolling on his stomach. Colic can be extended to as long as the stone does not change its position or not will come out of the ureter.


Treatment of kidney stones, urolithiasis

Treatment of urolithiasis (ICD) is carried out under constant medical supervision. Depending on the size of stone selected medical or surgical treatment. Currently, there are many non-operational methods which allow to achieve good results without surgery.

Treatment of urolithiasis should be comprehensive. For small pelvis or ureter stones prescribe drugs that activate urodynamics, self-stone-free rate, antibiotics and medication to dissolve the stones. If the size of a stone 0,5 cm appoint tsistenal, artemizol, ennantin, avisan. In renal colic procedures apply heat (hot water bottle, bath), analgesic agents, antispasmodics, procaine blockade.


Surgical treatment of kidney stones, urolithiasis

If the stone is located in the renal pelvis, performed pelviolithotomy. In this case, cut through the pelvis, the stone is removed and the pelvis suture and put a drain.

Sometimes a very large amount of stone can not be removed through an incision in the pelvis. In this case, the nephrolithotomy - the cut runs through the fabric of the kidney.

If the stone is located in the ureter, the ureter is opened and the stone removed. Operation is called ureterolithotomy.

Endoskopick transurethral surgery. Initially, the stone was destroyed to small pieces and removed through the cystoscope tube under the control of a surgeon. Now in connection with the creation of a new endoscopic technique (nephroscope, ureteropieloskopy), this method is one of the main methods for the treatment of kidney stone disease and other diseases of urinary tract. Applied this method to remove stones from the bladder, ureter and urethra.

Transurethral ureterolytotripsia (breaking stones in the ureter through the urethra) and litoekstraktsiya (stone extraction) is performed in a specially equipped rentgenoperatsionnoy. In the ureter entered ureteropieloskop, ureter examine and decide on ways to break the stone. If the stone is small, its capture and remove. If the stone is larger, it breaks up and removed piece by piece.

Percutaneous endoskopick surgery. In this nephroscope introduced in pyelocaliceal system through the kidneys puncture a hole in the lumbar region. With this method of surgery removed the stones from pyelocaliceal system of the kidneys.


Remote shock-wave lithotripsy for urinary kidney stones, urolithiasis

It allows you to destroy the stone to the smallest particles, which then depart on their own with urine. It uses a special reflector that transmits electro-waves at a distance and destroy the stones in the patient's body without direct contact with the stone.


If you have any questions about the diagnosis or treatment of urolithiasis (IBC), you can specify them with our urologist or a nephrologist on the phone: +7 (926) 988-14-23



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