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Kidney (urinary) symptoms and syndromes

 

Clinical and diagnostic significance of the main renal (urinary) syndromes and the elements of urinary sediment

Name of syndrome

Cause

Pathological conditions


Proteinuria

Increased permeability of glomerular capillaries.

Fever, intoxication, physical stress, hypothermia.

Slowing of renal blood flow, increased permeability of glomerular capillaries.

 

Hemodynamic impairments (reduced amount of urine of high-density), toxic and drug nephropathy, prolonged constipation and severe diarrhea, prolonged insolation.

Focal defect in renal membranes.

Orthostatic proteinuria

Increased permeability of the glomerular membrane. Reducing reabsorbitsii tubules.

Acute and chronic glomerulonephritis, especially when nefropaticheskom syndrome, pyelonephritis, amyloidosis, tuberculosis, kidney disease, cancer, abscess, polycystic, hydatid disease, kidney stones.

Increased secretion of protein epithelial tubules.

Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract.

Paraproteinuria

Filtering of pathological low MM proteins sintezirumyh tumor (myeloma) cells.

Myeloma, Waldenström's disease.

Myoglobinuria

Filtration of proteins of low MW because of necrosis of muscle tissue.

Myopathy, myocardial infarction, crush syndrome.

Hemoglobinuria
(hemosiderinuriya)

Filtration of proteins of low MW in intravascular hemolysis of red blood cells, destruction of red blood cell parasites.

Hemolytic anemia, malaria, burns, post-transfusion reactions, poisoning, severe infections (sepsis, scarlet fever).

Hematuria (erythrocyturia, erythruria)

The damage of the kidney filter (increase the permeability of the glomerular membrane) due to the destructive, inflammatory processes.

Increased vascular permeability due hypocoagulation.

Instability glomerular membrane.


The damage of the interstitial tissue and renal tubular epithelium, renal intravascular coagulation.

Hemorrhage, trauma, rupture of blood vessels of kidneys.

Acute and chronic glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, nephrosclerosis, renal cancer, nephrolithiasis, renal tuberculosis, angioskleroz.






Congenital and acquired coagulopathy (hemophilia, hemorrhagic diathesis, Rendu disease, liver disease, collagen).




Pyuria (leucocyturia):

Limfotsituria

Infectious-inflammatory lesions.

Cystitis, urethritis, urethral disease.

Pyelonephritis, renal tuberculosis, cancer, abscess, cystitis, urethritis.


Chronic glomerulonephritis, lupus nephritis, late-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Neutrophils and lymphocytes
Eosinophils

 

 

Glomerulonephritis

Chronic pyelonephritis tuberculous origin, pyelonephritis, cystitis, urethritis allergic genesis.

Cylindruria

 

Hyaline Coagulation protein in renal tubules.
Proteinuria of any genesis in toxicosis, sepsis, jaundice, flu and other infectious diseases.
 
Granular Granular degeneration of renal tubules. Acute glomerulonephritis and nephrotic form of chronic nephritis.

Waxy Long stay hyaline and granular cylinders in the extended tubules, increasing the viscosity of urine, hemodynamic instability, slowing blood flow, hydration, reduce the pH, the presence of bile, bile acids, mukoproteinov. Types of cylinders depends on the deposits on the cast, the protein hemoglobin, bilirubin, epithelial cells, salts.

Acute glomerulonephritis and nephrotic form of chronic nephritis, pyelonephritis, renal tuberculosis, cancer, nephrolithiasis, severe forms of chronic nephritis with diabetes, scarlet fever, lupus erythematosus, osteomyelitis, paraproteinemicheskie nephropathy, lipid nephrosis, amyloidosis, wrinkled
kidney.
Erythrocyte, hemoglobin Hemorrhage in the parenchyma of the kidney.

Embolism, myocardial kidney.

Epiteliuria:
transitional epithelium




 
squamous epithelium



 


renal epithelium


 

Sluschivaetsya inflammatory processes in the mucous membranes of the urinary tract, pelvis, bladder.

Sluschivaetsya




Sluschivaetsya layers.


Degenerative lesions of tubules of the kidneys. Fatty degeneration.

Acute and chronic cystitis, pielitah, infectious diseases, medications, urethritis, intoxication, renal stone disease.
 

With mucous external genitalia of women and men outside of the urethra.

 
Leukoplakia of the bladder.

 
Nephrotic form of chronic glomerulonephritis, lipid nephrosis, acute renal failure.

 


Glucosuria
Lowering the concentration of insulin is accompanied by a decrease in glucose uptake in the tissues and the formation of glycogen.

Acute and chronic pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus, acute renal failure, chronic glomerulonephritis with nephrotic syndrome, lipid nephrosis.
Drinking large amounts of carbohydrates in food.

Alimentary glycosuria.
Alimentary glycosuria.

Central (nervous), glycosuria.
Hormonal glycosuria. In hyperthyroidism, acromegaly, pituitary basophilia.

Abnormal liver function.

Hepatic glucosuria.

 

Decrease in glomerular filtration rate of glucose (a decrease or disappearance of glycosuria during hyperglycemia).

Violation of the resorption of glucose in the renal tubule in the damage of the proximal tubule or lack of transport systems.

With the development of glomerulosclerosis and renal shrinkage.



 
Renal (primary) glycosuria with normal blood glucose level, the secondary in chronic nephritis, nephrosis, acute renal failure.

Ketonuria
(acetone, acetonitrile-acetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid)



 

Excessive (enhanced ketogenesis) or decrease the splitting of ketone bodies (broken ketoliz).

Diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrate starvation (toxaemia, prolonged gastro-intestinal disorders, dysentery).

Carbohydrate starvation (toxaemia, prolonged gastro-intestinal disorders, dysentery).

When receiving a ketogenic substances rich foods, postoperative status.
Violation
ketoliz.

Glycogen disease.
Increased consumption of carbohydrates.

Thyrotoxicosis, thyroid toxicity
The loss of carbohydrates.

Severe renal glucosuria type.
Increased use of carbohydrate and fat mobilization. Acromegaly (excessive production of growth hormone), pituitary basophilia (increased production of glucocorticoids).
Acromegaly (excessive production of growth hormone), pituitary basophilia (increased production of glucocorticoids).

Acromegaly (excessive production of growth hormone), pituitary basophilia (increased production of glucocorticoids).

Indikanuria

With enhanced protein breakdown, intense putrefaction of proteins in the intestine.
 
With enhanced protein breakdown, intense putrefaction of proteins in the intestine.

  Nitrituria

The conversion of nitrates in the urine by bacteria to nitrite. Nitrite does not constitute gonococci, streptococci, tubercle bacillus.

Bacteriuria, acute yellow atrophy of liver.

Lipiduria
(leucine, tyrosine, cholesterol)

Fatty degeneration of the epithelial cells. Nephrotic syndrome of different origin, lipid nephrosis.

Mucus (as cylindroid)

Excess production mukoproteina cells of renal tubules of the urinary tract.

Inflammatory processes in the renal tubules and urinary tract.

Bilirubinuria

A impairment in the process of hepatocyte conjugation and excretion of bilirubin in the bile.
Parenchymatous hepatitis (infectious, toxic, allergic, liver cirrhosis, liver poisoning toxins, cytostatic therapy). Drug jaundice, Dubin-Johnson disease, illness Rotor.

Intergepatalnaya delay the outflow of bile.

Gallstone disease, tumor.

Urobilinuria

The loss affected hepatocyte ability to cleave urobilinogen.

Hepatitis of different origins.

Purpurinuria

 

Inherited disorders of synthesis of porphyrins in the liver.
Porphyria: Acute intermittent, protokoproporfiriya, urokoproporfiriya.

Erythroblasts in the bone marrow. Erythropoietic proto-and koproporfirii, Gunther's disease.

Symptomatic disorders of synthesis of porphyrins with different pathologies. Poisoning, hepatitis, cirrhosis, alcoholism, cancer, irradiation, cytostatic therapy, myoglobinuria, hemolysis.

 

If you have any questions about the diagnosis or treatment of renal (urinary) syndrome, you can specify them with our urologist or a nephrologist on the phone: (499) 130-08-09

 

 
 

 

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