Facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis), Bell's palsy
Facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) or Bell's palsy — is a impairment of the integrity of the facial nerve or its myelin sheath with motor, sensory and autonomic changes in the zone of innervation of facial muscles and skewed faces.
Facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) is caused by damage to the hull of the facial nerve or broken. This damage or inflammation of the facial nerve can occur at any site either: in the cranial cavity, while passing from the cranial cavity in the bone canal to the exit point in the stylomastoid opening or on the face.
Superficial branches of the facial nerve – temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular and cervical.
Facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) occurs during inflammation due to infection (herpes, otitis media), in injury of bones of the skull base as a result of head trauma, tumor compression of bridge-cerebellar angle (the brain, cranial nerves) or vertebral artery aneurysm, poisoning, etc.
On the mechanism of facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) can be identified:
- post-traumatic facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) (fracture of the pyramid of the temporal bone in head trauma, brain surgery, plastic surgery on a circular face lift)
- facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) resulting from compression of the nerve brain tumor in the cranial cavity
- infective facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) (influenza virus or herpes)
- toxic facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis)
Most frequently encountered in neurological practice facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) caused by a viral infection. So the virus that causes a picture of paresis or paralysis of facial muscles in facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) is the herpes virus. In this case, more often, facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) muscles paralysis, and he faces is one-sided.
Propensity for the emergence of facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) during viral infection (cold, hypothermia, marasmus) is attributable primarily to an anatomical feature of its location - the narrowness of the bone canal, which runs the facial nerve on the way out of the cranial cavity.
Herpes simplex virus breeds in the myelin sheath of the facial nerve. In the active phase of the division of the herpes virus damages the myelin sheath of the facial nerve, it causes swelling (part of the inflammatory response to viral infection of the whole body) - a condition called facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis), or Bell's palsy.
Paresis or paralysis of facial muscles in facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) arises on the affected side of the nerve.
As a result of neuritis of the facial nerve arises conduction impairments of nerve impulses from the brain to the muscles of the face, which is manifested paresis or paralysis of these muscles.
Depending on the level and type of facial nerve injury in patients with neuritis of the facial nerve would be the following symptoms and complaints:
- affects on movements (paresis, paralysis) in a particular facial muscle or muscle group to the inability to close the eyes;
- numbness in the lateral surface of the tongue.
Bell's palsy causes sudden weakness in patient’s facial muscles. This makes half of face appear to droop. Smile is one-sided and eye on that side resists closing.
Bell's palsy, also known as facial palsy, can occur at any age. The exact cause of Bell's palsy is unknown, but it's believed to be the result of swelling and inflammation of the facial nerve brunches that controls the muscles on one side of your face. Bell's palsy may be a reaction that occurs after a viral infection.
For most people, Bell's palsy is temporary. Symptoms usually start to improve within a few weeks, with complete recovery in about six months. A small number of people continue to have some Bell's palsy symptoms for life. Rarely, Bell's palsy can recur.
Signs and symptoms of Bell's palsy come on suddenly, and may include:
- rapid onset of mild weakness to total paralysis on one side of your face — occurring within hours to days — making it difficult to smile or close your eye on the affected side;
- facial droop and difficulty making facial expressions;
- pain around the jaw or in or behind your ear on the affected side;
- increased sensitivity to sound on the affected side;
- a decrease in your ability to taste;
- changes in the amount of tears and saliva you produce.
In rare cases, Bell's palsy can affect the facial nerves on both sides of patient’s face.
The diagnosis of facial nerve neuritis (neuropathy) is establish the kind of damage to nreve shelve and requires a clear diagnosis of level of its affect. Patients with facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) is sometimes also may require the following diagnostic procedures:
- conduct a neurological examination of the patient
- holding electroneurography (ENG)
- an electromyography (EMG)
- MRI of the brain
- CT of the brain and skull bones
Diagnosis of the level of nerve damage in facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis), just like any other nerve, produced by ENG.
Treatment of facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) is selected individually in each case. It includes a set of conservative procedures:
- stimulation of nerve and muscle
- vitamins (B, C and E)
- antiviral drugs
- homeopathic remedies
- surgery (neurolysis, nerve trunk cross-linking, etc.)
In the treatment of facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) acupuncture is very effective.
The duration of treatment for patients with facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) and its frequency is dictated in the future state of the nerve and facial muscles.
In the treatment of facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis) physical therapy is very effective.
If you have any questions about the diagnosis or treatment of facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis), you can specify them with our neurosurgeon or a neurologist on the phone: (499) 130–08–09
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Cubital tunnel syndrome
- Eyeball and visual pathway:
- Peripheral neuropathies (neuritis):
- Facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis), Bell's palsy
- Median nerve neuropathy (neuritis)
- Peroneal nerve neuropathy (neuritis)
- Radial nerve neuropathy (neuritis)
- Sciatic nerve neuropathy (traumatic neuritis)
- Tibial nerve neuropathy (neuritis)
- Trigeminal nerve neuropathy (traumatic neuritis)
- Ulnar nerve neuropathy (neuritis)
- Neuropathy and polyneuropathy (alcoholic, diabetic)
- Optic nerve and retina diseases:
- Opto-chiasmatic arachnoiditis (optic chiasm)
- Pain in the arm and neck (trauma, osteochondrosis)
- Sciatica, leg pain (hernia and protrusion of the disc)
- Traumatic neuropathies (neuritis)
- Trigeminal neuralgia
- Tumors of peripheral nerves