Optic nerve and retina diseases
The optic nerve is formed from neuron cells of the retina. Farther from the orbit cavity optic nerve passes behind the eye (retrobulbar) into the skull cavity (middle cranial fossa) and at the level of the sella turcica forms a crossing of the optic nerve (optic chiasm). After the optic chiasm at the level of sella bundles of nerve fibers form the optic tract. Ophthalmoscopic examination reveals changes in the fundus, related to various forms of optic nerve pathology.
The collected light information from retina is transmitted by the optic nerve into the brain for processing and analyzing the data.
Diseases of the optic nerve and retina is origin from several factors located in different place and type of pathological process:
- optic neuritis
- postbulbar optic neuritis
- optic neuropathy
- atrophy of the optic nerves
- changes in macular
- changes in retinal vessels
Based on these pathological factors doctor may construct a plan of pacient optic nerve and retina diseases examination and treatment options.
Papilledema - is a noninflammatory edema caused by increased intracranial pressure. In this case, there are congestion, papilledema, prominentsiya it in the vitreous of wear limits. Retinal vein dilated, tortuous. At an altitude of stagnation of the optic nerve are multi-hemorrhage in the retina.
A characteristic feature of papilledema is prolonged preservation of visual acuity, but the progression of edema exposed atrophy (atrophy after stagnation), accompanied by a decline in visual acuity and the development of blindness.
Congestive changes in the fundus are observed in all diseases involving increased intracranial pressure (tumor, hydrocephalus, meningitis, encephalitis). Cases of the optic nerve edema in which are also signs of a lesion of the optic nerve or optic tract and retina by pathological process, is called complicated papilledema.
Optic neuritis - is inflammation of the optic nerve along its entire length, including the optic disc. In the fundus with optic neuritis marked hyperemia of the optic nerve, blurring of its borders, the expansion of the arteries and veins, hemorrhage and foci of necrosis on the nipple surface and the surrounding retina. Characterized by an early breach of the visual functions simultaneously with the development of ophthalmoscopic changes.
Optic neuritis occur in acute inflammatory diseases of the nervous system (meningitis, encephalitis, entsefalomieliety, neurosyphilis).
Optic neuritis - inflammation of the optic nerve along its entire length, including the optic disc.
Postbulbar optic neuritis - inflammation of the optic nerve, not extending to the optic disc. Changes in the fundus are uncommon, found only slight hyperemia and of the optic nerve blurring borders.
Postbulbar neuritis is often one-sided. Signs of neuritis are falling and the impairment of visual fields. Occurs in multiple sclerosis, optikomielite, familial optic atrophy, optic-chiasmatic arachnoiditis.
Phenomenon of retrobulbar neuritis are possible with other acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the brain (encephalitis, meningitis, neurosyphilis).
Neuropathy of the optic nerve is the result of impairments in the vessels of the optic nerve is observed in the cerebral form of hypertension, vasospasm and nerve vascular embolism, etc.
Atrophy of the optic nerves - with ophthalmoscopy marked blanching of the optic disc, narrowing of blood vessels with safety (at primary atrophy), or the boundaries of wear (in secondary atrophy) of the optic nerve. Secondary optic nerve atrophy develops after all the processes accompanied by optic neuritis or stagnant drive. Primary (simple) optic nerve atrophy develops at a syphilitic lesion of the nervous system, compression of a nerve tumor, scar neuroma, gum, etc.
The combination of optic nerve atrophy in one eye with the development of congestive optic nerve disk in another (a Foerster - Kennedy syndrome) is observed at the tumor, gum or brains frontal lobe basal surface tuberculoma. Optic nerve atrophy occurs on the side of the tumor.
Changes in macular occur in children form of amaurotic familial idiocy (Tay-Sachs), which marks the grayish haze of yellow spots with dark red painting in its central part. With youthful form of the disease observed pigmentary retinal degeneration in the central parts.
Changes in retinal vessels - disruption and the caliber of retinal vessels - are observed more often with hypertension, sclerosis of cerebral vessels. In hypertensive distinguish several stages of vascular changes in the fundus: in the initial stage of change marked vasoconstriction, corkscrew-like tortuosity of venules in paramacular area (Gvist symptom), spasms of the arteries.
In the stage of organic changes in the fundus revealed vascular sclerosis (retina angiosclerosis), the narrowing of the caliber with the seal of the walls (the phenomenon of copper wire), the phenomenon of arterio-venous junction. Later in severe hypertensive encephalopathy observed retinopathy, in which the phenomena described above to join swelling, degenerative changes and hemorrhages in the retina and optic nerve neuropathy.
Treatment options for diseases of the optic nerve and retina is chosen individually in each case. Optic nerve and retina diseases treatment options includes a set of conservative and operative treatment procedures:
- stimulation of nerve and muscle
- vitamins (B, C and E)
- antiviral drugs
- homeopathic remedies
- surgery (neurolysis, nerve trunk cross-linking, etc.)
The use of acupuncture helps to restore lost funkitsyu for Diseases of the optic nerve and retina.
The duration of diseases of the optic nerve and retina treatment and its periodical in the future is dictated by the functional state of the optic nerve, retina, and restores the lost light sensitivity.
Physiotherapy accelerates recovery vision for diseases of the optic nerve and retina.
If you have any questions about the diagnosis or treatment of diseases of the optic nerve and retina, you can ask them to our neurosurgeon or neurologist: (499) 130–08–09
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- Cubital tunnel syndrome
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- Peripheral neuropathies (neuritis):
- Facial nerve neuropathy (neuritis), Bell's palsy
- Median nerve neuropathy (neuritis)
- Peroneal nerve neuropathy (neuritis)
- Radial nerve neuropathy (neuritis)
- Sciatic nerve neuropathy (traumatic neuritis)
- Tibial nerve neuropathy (neuritis)
- Trigeminal nerve neuropathy (traumatic neuritis)
- Ulnar nerve neuropathy (neuritis)
- Neuropathy and polyneuropathy (alcoholic, diabetic)
- Optic nerve and retina diseases:
- Opto-chiasmatic arachnoiditis (optic chiasm)
- Pain in the arm and neck (trauma, osteochondrosis)
- Sciatica, leg pain (hernia and protrusion of the disc)
- Traumatic neuropathies (neuritis)
- Trigeminal neuralgia
- Tumors of peripheral nerves