Norm of Brain Ultrasonography (Brain Echogram, Brain Ultrasound, Echoencephalogram)
Normal position of the brain's midline structures and normal blood-flow velocity.
Usage of Brain Ultrasonography (Brain Echogram, Brain Ultrasound, Echoencephalogram)
Diagnosis of brain deformities in newborns and infants, Leigh disease, space-occupying lesions, and structural shifts caused by cerebral edema, subdural hematoma, or extradural hematoma. Determination of viability of brain tissue based on the sequential measurement of blood flow velocity. Brain ultrasonograms can also be used for early detection of cerebral ischemia during a carotid endarterectomy while cerebral blood flow is interrupted. Ventriculomegaly.
Description of Brain Ultrasonography (Brain Echogram, Brain Ultrasound, Echoencephalogram)
An ultrasound beam is transmitted through the skull. The time required for the beam to be reflected back to the transducer is converted to an electrical impulse displayed on an oscilloscope screen and measured to determine the structure, position, and blood flow of the brain. A shift in the third ventricle of more than 3 mm from midline is abnormal. An enlargement of the third ventricle of more than 10 mm in the adult or more than 7 mm in the child is abnormal.
Professional Considerations of Brain Ultrasonography (Brain Echogram, Brain Ultrasound, Echoencephalogram)
Consent form NOT required.
- Remove jewelry and metal objects from the client's head and neck.
- Obtain ultrasonic gel or paste.
- The client is placed in a supine position.
- A small transducer, with water-soluble paste applied to it, is placed on the side of the head over the temporoparietal region.
- Ultrasonic beams are sent into the head, and their reflection is recorded on the oscilloscope and photographed.
- Cleanse the paste from the scalp.
Client and Family Teaching
- Do not drink hot or cold caffeine-containing beverages on the morning of the test.
- It is normal to hear an echo that sounds like repetitious humming or a musical note as the brain structures reflect the ultrasonic beam.
- This procedure takes approximately 1 hour.
- Results are normally available within 24 hours.
Factors That Affect Results
- Failure to remove jewelry and metal objects from the head and neck will interfere with the clarity of the oscilloscope pictures.
- Follow-up studies using a computed tomographic scan or radionucleotides may be indicated.
- An enlarged fourth ventricle is a physiologic variant in early fetal life of 14–16 weeks.