Proprioception sensation, or joint position sense, is knowledge about ones position in space, originating from sensory receptors in skin, muscle, and viscera. Proprioceptive information is carried within the dorsal columns of the spinal cord (more reliably so than vibration sensation, though not necessarily exclusively). Lesions affecting this part of the cord, particularly in the cervical region (e.g., subacute combined degeneration of the cord due to vitamin B12 deficiency, tabes dorsalis), lead to impairments of proprioception with sparing of spinothalamic sensations (pin-prick, temperature) producing a dissociated sensory loss. Impairment of proprioception leads to sensory ataxia which may manifest clinically with pseudoathetosis or pseudochoreoathetosis (also seen in useless hand of Oppenheim) and with a positive Romberg’s sign.
Gilman S. Joint position sense and vibration sense. Journal ofNeurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2002; 73: 473-477