Acute ethmoiditis (ethmoid sinus inflammation)
In childhood, ethmoiditis (inflammation of the ethmoid sinus) ranks first in terms of frequency of spread. In the causes of ethmoiditis (inflammation of the ethmoid sinus), acute respiratory diseases, viral infections are important. Predisposing moments for the occurrence of ethmoiditis (inflammation of the ethmoid sinus) are cooling, the narrowness of the middle nasal passage and outflow openings, anomalies of the middle turbinate, as well as obstructed outflow of discharge with easily arising swelling of the nasal mucosa.
Acute ethmoiditis (inflammation of the ethmoid sinus) can develop both at a very early age (since the ethmoid sinus in a child is better formed than the total paranasal sinuses), and in adults.
Acute ethmoiditis (ethmoid sinus inflammation) symptoms
At the age of up to 2 years, the subjective symptoms of ethmoiditis (inflammation of the ethmoid sinus) are almost not detected, therefore, the value of objective symptoms and research methods sharply increases. Along with the general symptoms of ethmoiditis (inflammation of the ethmoid sinus) - an increase in body temperature, decreased appetite, indigestion - profuse nasal discharge and difficulty in nasal breathing appear, then swelling and edema at the medial edge of the orbit. Swelling of the upper eyelid increases, skin hyperemia and narrowing of the palpebral fissure is noted. With anterior rhinoscopy, a sharply edematous and hyperemic nasal mucosa is found, and after anemisation of the middle nasal passage, abundant mucopurulent discharge often appears. The radiographs show a darkening of the ethmoid sinus. Computed tomography shows an inflammatory fluid in the cavity of the ethmoid sinus.
Acute ethmoiditis (inflammation of the ethmoid sinus) in young children is differentiated from acute osteomyelitis of the upper jaw, which usually proceeds more violently, with a pronounced increase in body temperature, more abundant purulent discharge from one half of the nose. On the 1st day of acute ethmoiditis (inflammation of the ethmoid sinus of the nose), a sharp swelling of the corresponding cheek and edema of the eyelids appear. The nasolabial fold is smoothed out, the angle of the mouth is lowered, the mobility of the upper lip is limited. In the oral cavity on the alveolar process from the vestibule of the mouth and on the hard palate, small infiltrates appear, covered with a hyperemic mucous membrane. The infiltrates then turn into an abscess and often open up spontaneously, after which fistulas usually remain with purulent discharge in the alveolar ridge, hard palate, and the medial corner of the eye.
Acute ethmoiditis (ethmoid sinus inflammation) treatment
The main attention in the treatment of acute ethmoiditis (inflammation of the ethmoid sinus) is paid to improving the outflow of contents from the affected paranasal sinus and restoring nasal breathing. Actively and systematically produce anemisation of the nasal mucosa. For this purpose, tampons moistened with 0.1% adrenaline solution are placed in the area of the middle nasal passage for 5-10 minutes. With abundant discharge, the pathological contents from the inflamed ethmoid sinus are aspirated and instilled into the nasal cavity 1% solution of protargol.
In the treatment of acute ethmoiditis (inflammation of the ethmoid sinus), antibacterial treatment and physiotherapy are performed.