Malignant bone disease (osteosarcoma)

Malignant bone disease (osteosarcoma)

To understand the mechanisms of a disease of the bone tissue and bone in general (of the tumor, osteosarcoma), should carefully examine what is bone and bone tissue itself.

Bone - is a specialized connective tissue, which, like all the connective tissue contains cells and the extracellular matrix. Extracellular matrix consists of organic and inorganic material.

In bone lesions tumors arise local osteoclastic bone resorption, which may lead to pathological fractures of vertebral bodies. On MRI of the cervical spine is visible compression fracture of the vertebral body complicated by compression of the spinal cord (arrows).

With extensive destruction of bone tumor, most often in metastases of breast cancer, multiple myeloma and lymphoma, there osteolytic hypercalcemia, in which the waste products of tumor cells, such as cytokines, stimulate local bone resorption by osteoclasts.

Solid tumors (osteosarcoma) due to the secretion of tumor peptides like parathyroid hormone, stimulates bone resorption. There is humoral hypercalcemia of paraneoplastic: tumor metabolites have a common effect, reducing the excretion of calcium.

PTH-like peptides have regions of amino acid sequence, such as PTH, they act through receptors of the hormone and thus can not be detected by immunoassay. Effect on the stimulation of bone resorption have growth factors, prostaglandins and cytokines, in particular, activating osteoclasts, which often rise in leukemia.