Massage therapy (french. masser - rub) - a set of methods of mechanical and reflex effects on tissues and organs in the form of friction, pressure, vibration, carried out directly on the surface of the human body as the arms and special devices through air, water or other medium (gel cream, butter, etc.) to achieve a particular therapeutic effect.
With the massage therapy is possible to influence:
- blood circulation
- nervous system
- respiratory system
Massage therapy effects on the skin
- Through skin irritation transmitted to the central nervous system, which determines the response of the organism and its individual organs.
- Massage therapy helps to remove from the skin surface obsolete horn cells of the epidermis, which in turn improves the sebaceous and sweat glands.
- During the massage improves blood supply of the skin and eliminates venous congestion.
- Temperature of massaged area increases, and thus speeds up the metabolic and enzymatic processes.
During the massage the massaged skin becomes pink and firm due to increased blood supply. After the massage increases the skin's resistance to mechanical and thermal effects. When stroking the skin during the massage is an acceleration of the movement of lymph in the lymphatic vessels and eliminates congestion in the veins.
These processes do not only occur in the vessels being massaged on the area of skin, but in adjacent zones. Such a draining effect of massage due to lower pressure in the vessels massaged. Raising the skin and muscle tone, massage affects the appearance of the skin, leaving it smooth and supple. Accelerating the metabolism in the skin tissue after the massage has a positive effect on the general metabolism of the body as a whole.
Massage therapy effects on the joints
Joint capsule has two layers: the inner (synovial) and external (fibrous). Synovial fluid from the inner layer to reduce friction and supports the power of cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of bones. In the depths of the outer layer, or near it are binding.
Under the influence of massage improves the supply joint and surrounding tissues of the blood, accelerating the formation and movement of synovial fluid, and as a result become more elastic cords.
Due transferred overload and microtrauma to joints may experience stiffness, swelling, shrinkage of joint capsules, changing the composition of synovial fluid. Through massage, leading to improved nutrition articular tissues, not only can get rid of these painful events, but also to prevent them. In addition, time spent massage prevents damage to the cartilage, leading to the emergence of arthrosis.
Under the influence of massage can increase range of motion in the hip, shoulder, elbow, intervertebral joints.
Massage therapy effects on the nervous system
Massage therapy affects the peripheral and central nervous system. When massaging the skin nervous system is the first to respond to mechanical stimulation. In the central nervous system is sent a flow of impulses from the numerous receptor organs, perceiving pressure, temperature and various tactile stimulation.
Under the influence of massage therapy the skin, muscles and joints occur pulses excite the motor cells of the cerebral cortex and stimulating the activity of the respective centers.
The positive effect of massage therapy on the nervous and muscular system depends on the type and nature of the massage techniques (pressure hand massage, the duration of the passage, and so on. D.) And is expressed as an increase in the frequency of contraction and relaxation of muscles and skin and muscle sensitivity. The experimental results showed that cut the nerve recovers quickly, if done regularly massage the damaged tissues. Under the influence of massage accelerates the growth of axons, slowing the formation of scar tissue and there is resorption of the decay products.
In addition, massage techniques help to reduce pain sensitivity, improve nerve excitability and conduction of nerve impulses along the nerve.
Massage therapy effects on the muscles
Muscles consist of muscle fibers, which are the main property - excitability and contractility. After a strong ten-minute exercise enough massage, not only to restore the original performance of muscles, but also to increase it. Such a reaction of the muscle fibers in the massage promotes special and irritation of the nerve fibers contained in the muscle bundles.
Under the influence of massage improves blood circulation in the muscles and redox processes: increased speed of delivery of oxygen and removal of metabolic products. As a result, removes the feeling of stiffness, pain and swelling of the muscles.
Massage therapy effects on the respiratory system
Different types of thorax massage therapy (rubbing and kneading muscles of the back, neck, and the intercostal muscles, the dock area of the diaphragm to the ribs) improve respiratory function and relieve fatigue of the respiratory muscles.
Regular massage therapy is conducted over a period of time, has beneficial effects on the pulmonary smooth muscle, contributing to the formation of conditioned reflexes.
The main effect of massage techniques conducted on the chest (stroking, hack, rubbing intercostal spaces), expressed as a reflex deep breathing and improve the drainage function of bronchi with improved exhaust sputum from the lungs.
Types of massage therapy
Sports massage therapy
This type of massage therapy is used to improve the functional state of the athlete, his fitness level, decrease fatigue, improve physical performance and prevention of injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system. There is a division of sports massage on a preliminary (mobilization) and recovery.
Preliminary (mobilization) massage is performed before training (competition). The purpose of the pre-massage - training the neuromuscular apparatus, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, accelerating the process vrabatyvaemosti, prevention of injuries of the musculoskeletal system. Depending on the nature of the work, the sport, the mental state of an athlete distinguished soothing and restorative massage.
Restorative massage is usually done after a lot of physical and mental exertion. The aim of restorative massage is restoration of the functional state of the athlete, increase physical performance, the removal of total exhaustion. As a rule, held a general restorative massage, at least locally, for example, in the breaks between the performances of wrestlers, boxers, gymnasts.
After strenuous exercise, he is gentle in nature, and in the days of rest - a deeper massage. Frequency of reductive massage depends on the degree of fatigue, the preparation phase and other factors.
An effective treatment for various diseases and injuries is currently the therapeutic massage. Therapeutic massage helps to restore the normal functioning of the whole organism.
Therapeutic massage is an effective treatment for various injuries and illnesses. Modifications therapeutic massage vary according to the nature of functional disorders of the body.
Therapeutic massage is a technique, indications and contraindications:
- Diseases of the musculoskeletal system:
- cervical-thoracic osteochondrosis
- sprains ankle and knee joints
- joints stiffness and contractures
- fractures of the limbs and vertebrae
- deforming arthrosis of the knee
- deforming arthrosis of the ankle
- deforming arthrosis of the elbow
- massage of the stump flatfoot
- Heart disease:
- neurocirculatory dystonia (VVD)
- chronic disease of the heart muscle
- varicose veins
- decline of cardiac activity
- sudden cardiac arrest
- Diseases of the nervous system:
- intercostal neuralgia
- sciatica (neurological manifestation of lumbar degenerative disc disease)
- neuralgia occipital nerve
- trigeminal neuralgia
- neuritis of the facial nerve
- neuralgia of the solar plexus
- Digestive system:
- gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer
- gall bladder and liver
- impaired motor function of the colon
- Respiratory system
- Endocrine system
Massage therapy, as a preparatory procedure before the manual therapy, contributes to heating of the muscles, relieve tension, improve microcirculation in the affected areas of soft tissue in the patient.
A list of some common diseases that require treatment including the use of massage and manipulation:
- pain in the arm and neck with osteochondrosis
- back pain and sciatica with protrusion and disc herniation
- musculo-tonic syndrome (fibromyalgia)
- neuritis and neuropathy
- intercostal neuralgia
- carpal tunnel syndrome
- joint osteoarthritis
- adhesive capsulitis ("frozen shoulder" syndrome, shoulder joint periarthrosis)
- dysfunction and osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
Classic massage therapy
This type of massage therapy - active agent of disease prevention and care for the body to maintain normal functional condition of the body, health. Through classical massage increases the vitality of the body, increases immunity.