ACT - General Information
A compound composed of a two cyclic peptides attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from streptomyces parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
Pharmacology of ACT
Generally, the actinomycins exert an inhibitory effect on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and on some fungi. However, the toxic properties of the actinomycins (including dactinomycin) in relation to antibacterial activity are such as to preclude their use as antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases. Because the actinomycins are cytotoxic, they have an antineoplastic effect which has been demonstrated in experimental animals with various types of tumor implant. This cytotoxic action is the basis for their use in the treatment of certain types of cancer. ACT is believed to produce its cytotoxic effects by binding DNA and inhibiting RNA synthesis.
ACT for patients
Dactinomycin is a type of antibiotic that is only used in cancer
chemotherapy. It slows or stops the growth of cancer cells in your
body. The length of treatment depends on the types of drugs you are
taking, how well your body responds to them, and the type of cancer
you have. tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to
dactinomycin or any other drugs. tell your doctor and pharmacist
what prescription and nonprescription medications you are taking,
especially aspirin and vitamins. tell your doctor if you have or
have ever had liver disease, ulcers, or gastrointestinal disease.
you should know that dactinomycin may interfere with the normal
menstrual cycle (period) in women and may stop sperm production
in men. However, you should not assume that you cannot get pregnant
or that you cannot get someone else pregnant. Women who are pregnant
or breast-feeding should tell their doctors before they begin taking
this drug. You should not plan to have children while receiving
chemotherapy or for a while after treatments. (Talk to your doctor
for further details.) Use a reliable method of birth control to
prevent pregnancy. Dactinomycin may harm the fetus. do not have any
vaccinations (e.g., measles or flu shots) without talking to your
Dactinomycin may interfere with bioassay procedures for the determination of antibacterial drug levels.
Hypersensitivity to any component of this product.
COSMEGEN should not be given at or about the time of infection with chickenpox or herpes zoster because of the risk of severe generalized disease which may result in death.
Additional information about ACT
ACT Indication: For the treatment of Wilms' tumor, childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and metastatic, nonseminomatous testicular cancer as part of a combination chemotherapy and/or multi-modality treatment regimen
Mechanism Of Action: Good evidence exists that this drug bind strongly, but reversibly, to DNA, interfering with synthesis of RNA and, consequently, with protein synthesis.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Dactinomycin
Synonyms: AD; Antibiotic From Streptomyces Parvullus; Dactinomicina [Inn-Spanish]; Dactinomycine [Inn-French]; Dactinomycinum [Inn-Latin]
Drug Category: Antibiotics; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Antineoplastic Agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Dactinomycin: ACT; ACT D; ACTINOMYCIN D; ACTO-D; Actactinomycin a Iv; Actinomycin 11 Cosmegen; Actinomycin 7; Actinomycin Aiv; Actinomycin C1; Actinomycin I; Actinomycin I1; Actinomycin Iv; Actinomycin X 1; Actinomycindioic D Acid, Dilactone; Chounghwamycin B; Cosmegen; Dactinomycin D; Dilactone Actinomycin D Acid; Dilactone Actinomycindioic D Acid; HBF 386 Meractinomycin; Lyovac Cosmegen; Meractinomycin; Oncostatin K; Oxamide;
Absorption: poorly absorbed from gastrointestinal tract
Toxicity (Overdose): hepatoxicity
Protein Binding: 5%
Half Life: 36 hours
Dosage Forms of ACT: Powder, for solution Intravenous
Chemical IUPAC Name: 2-amino-4,6-dimethyl-3-oxo-N,N'-bis[7,11,14-trimethyl-2,5,9,12,15-pentaoxo-3,10-di(propan-2-yl)-8-oxa-1,4,11,14-tetrazabicyclo[14.3.0]nonadecan-6-yl]phenoxazine-1,9-dicarboxamide
Chemical Formula: C62H86N12O16
Dactinomycin on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dactinomycin
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals