AKPro - General Information

AKPro is a prodrug of adrenaline, which is used to treat glaucoma. It is available as ophthalmic solution (eye drops).


Pharmacology of AKPro

AKPro is a member of a class of drugs known as prodrugs. Prodrugs are usually not active in themselves and require biotransformation to the parent compound before therapeutic activity is seen. These modifications are undertaken to enhance absorption, decrease side effects and enhance stability and comfort, thus making the parent compound a more useful drug. Enhanced absorption makes the prodrug a more efficient delivery system for the parent drug because less drug will be needed to produce the desired therapeutic response. AKPro is a prodrug of epinephrine formed by the diesterification of epinephrine and pivalic acid. The addition of pivaloyl groups to the epinephrine molecule enhances its lipophilic character and, as a consequence, its penetration into the anterior chamber.


AKPro for patients

Instructions for use:

  1. On the first usage, make sure the number "1" appears in the window. If not, click the cap to the right station.
  2. Remove the cap and apply medication.
  3. Replace the cap. Hold the C CAP® between your thumb and forefinger. Now rotate the bottle until the cap clicks to the next station.
  4. When it's time to take your next dose, repeat steps 2 and 3.

Important Notes:

Don't try to catch up on missed doses by applying more than one dose at a time. Each time you replace the cap, turn it until you hear the click. The number in the window specifies your next dosage.


AKPro Interactions

No Information Provided.


AKPro Contraindications

PROPINE® should not be used in patients with narrow angles since any dilation of the pupil may predispose the patient to an attack of angle-closure glaucoma. This product is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any of its components.


Additional information about AKPro

AKPro Indication: Used as initial therapy for the control of intraocular pressure in chronic open-angle glaucoma.
Mechanism Of Action: AKPro is converted to epinephrine inside the human eye by enzyme hydrolysis. The liberated epinephrine, an adrenergic agonist, appears to exert its action by decreasing aqueous production and by enhancing outflow facility. The dipivefrin prodrug delivery system is a more efficient way of delivering the therapeutic effects of epinephrine, with fewer side effects than are associated with conventional epinephrine therapy.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Dipivefrin
Synonyms: Not Available
Drug Category: Ophthalmologicals; Sympathomimetics
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved

Other Brand Names containing Dipivefrin: AKPro; DPE; Dipivefrin HCL; Dipivefrin [USAN]; Dipivefrina [INN-Spanish]; Dipivefrine; Dipivefrinum [INN-Latin]; Ophtho-Dipivefrin; Propine; Propine C Cap B.I.D.;
Absorption: Well absorbed following occular administration.
Toxicity (Overdose): Oral LD50 in rat is 183 mg/kg.
Protein Binding: Not Available
Biotransformation: Dipivefrin is converted to epinephrine inside the human eye by enzyme hydrolysis.
Half Life: Not Available
Dosage Forms of AKPro: Solution / drops Ophthalmic
Liquid Ophthalmic
Chemical IUPAC Name: [2-(2,2-dimethylpropanoyloxy)-5-(1-hydroxy-2-methylaminoethyl)phenyl] 2,2-dimethylpropanoate
Chemical Formula: C19H29NO5
Dipivefrin on Wikipedia:
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals