Antepan - General Information
Antepan is an organic compound that consists of a six-membered ring containing two opposing nitrogen atoms. Antepan exists as small alkaline deliquescent crystals with a saline taste.
Antepan was introduced to medicine as a solvent for uric acid. When taken into the body the drug is partly oxidized and partly eliminated unchanged. Outside the body, piperazine has a remarkable power to dissolve uric acid and producing a soluble urate, but in clinical experience it has not proved equally successful.
Antepan was first introduced as an anthelmintic in 1953. A large number of piperazine compounds have anthelmintic action. Their mode of action is generally by paralysing parasites, which allows the host body to easily remove or expel the invading organism.
Pharmacology of Antepan
Antepan is an anthelminthic especially useful in the treatment of partial intestinal obstruction caused by Ascaris worms, which is a condition primarily seen in children. Antepan hydrate and piperazine citrate are the main anthelminthic piperazines.
Antepan for patients
Phenothiazines - Taking piperazine and a phenothiazine together may increase the risk of convulsions (seizures).
Pyrantel (e.g., Antiminth) - Taking piperazine and pyrantel together may decrease the effects of piperazine.
Patients with hypersensitivity to piperazine salts or a history of renal function impairment should avoid this medication
Additional information about Antepan
Antepan Indication: Used as alternative treatment for ascariasis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm) and enterobiasis (oxyuriasis) caused by Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm). It is also used to treat partial intestinal obstruction by the common roundworm, a condition primarily occurring in children.
Mechanism Of Action: Antepan is a GABA receptor agonist. Piperzine binds directly and selectively to muscle membrane GABA receptors, presumably causing hyperpolarization of nerve endings, resulting in flaccid paralysis of the worm. While the worm is paralyzed, it is dislodged from the intestinal lumen and expelled live from the body by normal intestinal peristalsis.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Piperazine
Synonyms: fluphenazine dihydrochloride; Glycine anhydride; Hexahydropyrazine; Diethylenediamine; Diethyleneimine; Diketopiperazine; Piperazin [Germany]; Piperazine Citrate; Piperazin; Piperazine hexahydrate; Piperazine hydrate; Prolixin Decanoate
Drug Category: Antinematodal Agents; Anthelmintics
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Absorption: Rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract
Toxicity (Overdose): LD50 = 5 g/kg (Human, oral). Symptoms of overdose include muscle fatigue, seizures, and difficulty breathing.
Protein Binding: 60-70%
Biotransformation: About 25% is metabolized in the liver. Piperazine is nitrosated to form N -mononitrosopiperazine (MNPz) in gastric juice, which is then metabolized to N-nitroso-3-hydroxypyrrolidine (NHPYR).
Half Life: Not Available
Dosage Forms of Antepan: Solution / drops Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: piperazine
Chemical Formula: C4H10N2
Piperazine on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piperazine
Organisms Affected: Parasitic nematodes and other roundworms