Berocca PN - General Information
Berocca PN (commonly known as Vitamin B12) is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins. Berocca PN's structure is based on a corrin ring, which, although similar to the porphyrin ring found in heme, chlorophyll, and cytochrome, has two of the pyrrole rings directly bonded. The central metal ion is Co (cobalt). Berocca PN cannot be made by plants or by animals, as the only type of organisms that have the enzymes required for the synthesis of cyanocobalamin are bacteria and archaea. Higher plants do not concentrate cyanocobalamin from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. Berocca PN is naturally found in foods including meat (especially liver and shellfish), eggs, and milk products. [HMDB]
Pharmacology of Berocca PN
Berocca PN (Vitamin B12) is a water-soluble organometallic compound with a trivalent cobalt ion bound inside a corrin ring. It is needed for nerve cells and red blood cells, and to make DNA. Vitamin B12 deficiency is the cause of several forms of anemia.
Berocca PN for patients
Patients with pernicious anemia should be informed that they will require monthly injections of vitamin B12 for the remainder of their lives. Failure to do so will result in return of the anemia and in development of incapacitating and irreversible damage to the nerves of the spinal cord. Also, patients should be warned about the danger of taking folic acid in place of vitamin B12, because the former may prevent anemia but allow progression of subacute combined degeneration.
A vegetarian diet which contains no animal products (including milk products or eggs) does not supply any vitamin B12. Patients following such a diet, should be advised to take oral vitamin B12 regularly. The need for vitamin B12 is increased by pregnancy and lactation. Deficiency has been recognized in infants of vegetarian mothers who were breast fed, even though the mothers had no symptoms of deficiency at the time.
Berocca PN Interactions
Persons taking most antibiotics, methotrexate and pyrimethamine invalidate folic acid and vitamin B12 diagnostic blood assays. Colchicine para-aminosalicylic acid and heavy alcohol intake for longer than 2 weeks may produce malabsorption of vitamin B12.
Berocca PN Contraindications
Hemochromatosis and hemosiderosis are contraindications to iron therapy.
Additional information about Berocca PN
Berocca PN Indication: For treatment of pernicious anemia (due to lack of or inhibition of intrinsic factor) and for prevention and treatment of vitamin B 12 deficiency.
Mechanism Of Action: Vitamin B12 is used in the body in two forms: Methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin. The enzyme methionine synthase needs methylcobalamin as a cofactor. This enzyme is involved in the conversion of the amino acid homocysteine into methionine. Methionine in turn is required for DNA methylation. 5-Deoxyadenosyl cobalamin is a cofactor needed by the enzyme that converts L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA. This conversion is an important step in the extraction of energy from proteins and fats. Furthermore, succinyl CoA is necessary for the production of hemoglobin, the substances that carries oxygen in red blood cells.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Cyanocobalamin
Synonyms: Vitamin B12; Vitamin B12 complex; Cyanocob(III)alamin
Drug Category: Antianemic Agents; Essential Vitamin; Vitamins (Vitamin B Complex)
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Nutraceutical; Approved
Absorption: Readily absorbed in the lower half of the ileum.
Toxicity (Overdose): Anaphylactic reaction (skin rash, itching, wheezing)-after parenteral administration. ORL-MUS LD50 > 8000 mg/kg
Protein Binding: Very high (to specific plasma proteins called transcobalamins); binding of hydroxocobalamin is slightly higher than cyanocobalamin.
Half Life: Approximately 6 days (400 days in the liver).
Dosage Forms of Berocca PN: Liquid Intramuscular
Tablet, extended release Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: Not Available
Chemical Formula: C63H89CoN14O14P+
Cyanocobalamin on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanocobalamin
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals