Betaxin - General Information
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
Pharmacology of Betaxin
Betaxin is a vitamin with antioxidant, erythropoietic, cognition-and mood-modulatory, antiatherosclerotic, putative ergogenic, and detoxification activities. Betaxin has been found to protect against lead-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver and kidney. Betaxin deficiency results in selective neuronal death in animal models. The neuronal death is associated with increased free radical production, suggesting that oxidative stress may play an important early role in brain damage associated with thiamine deficiency. Betaxin plays a key role in intracellular glucose metabolism and it is thought that thiamine inhibits the effect of glucose and insulin on arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation. Inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation may also promote atherosclerosis. Endothelial cells in culture have been found to have a decreased proliferative rate and delayed migration in response to hyperglycemic conditions. Betaxin has been shown to inhibit this effect of glucose on endothelial cells.
Betaxin for patients
A deficiency of thiamine can cause weakness, fatigue, psychosis, and nerve damage. Thiamine deficiency in the United States is most often seen in those who abuse alcohol (alcoholism). A lot of alcohol makes it hard for the body to absorb thiamine from foods. Unless those with alcoholism receive higher-than-normal amounts of thiamine to make up for the difference, the body will not get enough of the substance. This can lead to a disease called beriberi.
In severe thiamine deficiency, brain damage can occur. One type is called Korsakoff syndrome. The other is Wernicke's disease. Either or both of these conditions can occur in the same person.
There is no known poisoning linked to thiamine.
Recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) are the levels of essential nutrients that the Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine believes meets the known nutrient needs of almost all healthy persons.
Specific recommendations for each vitamin depend on age, gender, and other factors (such as pregnancy). Adults and pregnant or lactating women need higher levels of thiamine than young children.
Interactions for Vitamin B1 (Thiamine):
Loop Diuretics, Oral Contraceptives, Stavudine, Tricyclic Antidepressants
Contraindications for Vitamin B1 (Thiamine):
Hypersensitivity to vitamin B1 or any component of a product containing vitamin B1.
Additional information about Betaxin
Betaxin Indication: For the treatment of thiamine and niacin deficiency states, Korsakov's alcoholic psychosis, Wernicke-Korsakov syndrome, delirium, and peripheral neuritis.
Mechanism Of Action: It is thought that the mechanism of action of thiamine on endothelial cells is related to a reduction in intracellular protein glycation by redirecting the glycolytic flux.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Thiamine
Synonyms: Thiamine Hcl; Thiamin; Vitamin B1; Thiadoxine
Drug Category: Anti-inflammatory Agents; Essential Vitamin; Vitamins (Vitamin B Complex)
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Nutraceutical; Approved
Absorption: Absorbed mainly from duodenum, by both active and passive processes
Toxicity (Overdose): Thiamine toxicity is uncommon; as excesses are readily excreted, although long-term supplementation of amounts larger than 3 gram have been known to cause toxicity. Oral mouse LD50 = 8224 mg/kg, oral rat LD50 = 3710 mg/kg.
Protein Binding: 90-94%
Half Life: Not Available
Dosage Forms of Betaxin: Solution Intravenous
Chemical IUPAC Name: 2-[3-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-3-ium-5-yl]ethanol
Chemical Formula: C12H17N4OS+
Thiamine on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thiamine
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals