Carnosporin - General Information
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of cephaloridine or cephalothin, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
Pharmacology of Carnosporin
Carnosporin (also called Cefalexin) is a first generation cephalosporin antibiotic. It is one of the most widely prescribed antibiotics, often used for the treatment of superficial infections that result as complications of minor wounds or lacerations. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria.
Carnosporin for patients
Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Keflex should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Keflex is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Keflex or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Metformin In healthy subjects given single 500 mg doses of cephalexin and metformin, plasma metformin mean cmax and AUC increased by an average of 34% and 24%, respectively, and metformin mean renal clearance decreased by 14%. No information is available about the interaction of cephalexin and metformin following multiple doses of either drug.
Although not observed in this study, adverse effects could potentially arise from co-administration of cephalexin and metformin by inhibition of tubular secretion via organic cationic transporter systems. Accordingly, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin is recommended in patients concomitantly taking cephalexin and metformin.
Probenecid As with other b-lactams, the renal excretion of cephalexin is inhibited by probenecid.
Drug / Laboratory Test Interactions
As a result of administration of Keflex, a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur. This has been observed with Benedictís and Fehlingís solutions and also with Clinitest® tablets.
Keflex is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics.
Additional information about Carnosporin
Carnosporin Indication: For the treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes; otitis media due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Moraxella catarrhalis; skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and/or Streptococcus pyogenes; bone infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and/or Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract infections, including acute prostatitis, caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Mechanism Of Action: Carnosporin, like the penicillins, is a beta-lactam antibiotic. By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, it inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that cephalexin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.
Drug Interactions: Probenecid Probenecid increases the antibiotic's level
Food Interactions: Take on empty stomach: 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.
Generic Name: Cephalexin
Synonyms: Cefalessina [DCIT]; Cefalexin Sodium; Cefalexina [INN-Spanish]; Cefalexine [INN-French]; Cefalexinum [INN-Latin]; Cefalexin; Cephalexin 1-hydrate; Cephalexin hydrate; Cephalexin monohydrate; Cephalexinum; Cephalexine; CEX
Drug Category: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Cephalosporins
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Absorption: Well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract
Toxicity (Overdose): Symptoms of overdose include blood in the urine, diarrhea, nausea, upper abdominal pain, and vomiting. The oral median lethal dose of cephalexin in rats is >5000 mg/kg.
Protein Binding: 14%
Biotransformation: No appreciable biotransformation in the liver (90% of the drug is excreted unchanged in the urine).
Half Life: 1 hour
Dosage Forms of Carnosporin: Powder, for solution Oral
Powder, for suspension Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: (6R,7R)-7-[[(2R)-2-amino-2-phenylacetyl]amino]-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid
Chemical Formula: C16H17N3O4S
Cephalexin on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cephalexin
Organisms Affected: Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria