Cuprenil - General Information
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson&
Pharmacology of Cuprenil
Cuprenil is a chelating agent used in the treatment of Wilson's disease. It is also used to reduce cystine excretion in cystinuria and to treat patients with severe, active rheumatoid arthritis unresponsive to conventional therapy. Cuprenil is used as a form of immunosuppression to treat rheumatoid arthritis. It works by reducing numbers of T-lymphocytes, inhibiting macrophage function, decreasing IL-1, decreasing rheumatoid factor, and preventing collagen from cross-linking. Its use in Wilson's disease, a rare genetic disorder of copper metabolism, relies on its binding to accumulated copper and elimination through urine.
Cuprenil for patients
No information available.
Except for the treatment of Wilson's disease or certain patients with cystinuria, use of penicillamine during pregnancy is contraindicated.
Although breast milk studies have not been reported in animals or humans, mothers on therapy with penicillamine should not nurse their infants.
Patients with a history of penicillamine-related aplastic anemia or agranulocytosis should not be restarted on penicillamine.
Because of its potential for causing renal damage, penicillamine should not be administered to rheumatoid arthritis patients with a history or other evidence of renal insufficiency.
Additional information about Cuprenil
Cuprenil Indication: For treatment of Wilson's disease, cystinuria and active rheumatoid arthritis
Mechanism Of Action: Cuprenil is a chelating agent recommended for the removal of excess copper in patients with Wilson's disease. From in vitro studies which indicate that one atom of copper combines with two molecules of penicillamine. Cuprenil also reduces excess cystine excretion in cystinuria. This is done, at least in part, by disulfide interchange between penicillamine and cystine, resulting in formation of penicillamine-cysteine disulfide, a substance that is much more soluble than cystine and is excreted readily. Cuprenil interferes with the formation of cross-links between tropocollagen molecules and cleaves them when newly formed. The mechanism of action of penicillamine in rheumatoid arthritis is unknown although it appears to suppress disease activity. Unlike cytotoxic immunosuppressants, penicillamine markedly lowers IgM rheumatoid factor but produces no significant depression in absolute levels of serum immunoglobulins. Also unlike cytotoxic immunosuppressants which act on both, penicillamine in vitro depresses T-cell activity but not B-cell activity.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Penicillamine
Synonyms: beta,beta-Dimethylcysteine; beta-Thiovaline; D-Mercaptovaline; D-Penamine; D-Penicilamine; D-Penicillamine; D-Penicyllamine; Dimethylcysteine; L-Penicillamine; PCA; Penicilamina [INN-Spanish]; Penicillamin; Penicillamina [DCIT]; Penicillaminum [INN-Latin]; Penicilllamine
Drug Category: Antidotes; Antirheumatic Agents; Chelating Agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Absorption: rapidly but incompletely
Toxicity (Overdose): Not Available
Protein Binding: >80% (bound to plasma proteins)
Half Life: 1 hour
Dosage Forms of Cuprenil: Capsule Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: (2S)-2-amino-3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanoic acid
Chemical Formula: C5H11NO2S
Penicillamine on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penicillamine
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals