DM2 - General Information
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of daunorubicin. [PubChem]
Pharmacology of DM2
DM2 is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. General properties of drugs in this class include: interaction with DNA in a variety of different ways including intercalation (squeezing between the base pairs), DNA strand breakage and inhibition with the enzyme topoisomerase II. Most of these compounds have been isolated from natural sources and antibiotics. However, they lack the specificity of the antimicrobial antibiotics and thus produce significant toxicity. The anthracyclines are among the most important antitumor drugs available. DM2 is widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors while daunorubicin and idarubicin are used exclusively for the treatment of leukemia. DM2 may also inhibit polymerase activity, affect regulation of gene expression, and produce free radical damage to DNA. DM2 possesses an antitumor effect against a wide spectrum of tumors, either grafted or spontaneous. The anthracyclines are cell cycle-nonspecific.
DM2 for patients
Patients and their caregivers should be informed of the expected adverse effects of DOXIL, particularly hand-foot syndrome, stomatitis, and neutropenia and related complications of neutropenic fever, infection, and sepsis.
Hand-Foot Syndrome (HFS): Patients who experience tingling or burning, redness, flaking, bothersome swelling, small blisters, or small sores on the palms of their hands or soles of their feet (symptoms of Hand-Foot Syndrome) should notify their physician.
Stomatitis: Patients who experience painful redness, swelling, or sores in the mouth (symptoms of stomatitis) should notify their physician.
Fever and Neutropenia Patients who develop a fever of 100.5°F or higher should notify their physician.
Nausea, vomiting, tiredness, weakness, rash, or mild hair loss Patients who develop any of these symptoms should notify their physician.
Following its administration, DOXIL may impart a reddish orange color to the urine and other body fluids. This nontoxic reaction is due to the color of the product and will dissipate as the drug is eliminated from the body.
No formal drug interaction studies have been conducted with DOXIL . Until specific compatibility data are available, it is not recommended that DOXIL be mixed with other drugs. DOXIL may interact with drugs known to interact with the conventional formulation of doxorubicin HCl.
DOXIL (doxorubicin HCl liposome injection) is contraindicated in patients who have a history of hypersensitivity reactions to a conventional formulation of doxorubicin HCl or the components of DOXIL.
DOXIL IS CONTRAINDICATED IN NURSING MOTHERS.
Additional information about DM2
DM2 Indication: For the treatment of Koposi's sarcome connected to AIDS.
Mechanism Of Action: DM2 has antimitotic and cytotoxic activity through a number of proposed mechanisms of action: DM2 forms complexes with DNA by intercalation between base pairs, and it inhibits topoisomerase II activity by stabilizing the DNA-topoisomerase II complex, preventing the religation portion of the ligation-religation reaction that topoisomerase II catalyzes.
Drug Interactions: Digoxin The antineoplasic agent decreases the effect of digoxin
Food Interactions: Liberal fluid intake to increase urine output and help the excretion of uric acid.
Generic Name: Doxorubicin
Synonyms: Doxorubicin HCl; Doxorubicin Hydrochloride; Doxorubicina [Inn-Spanish]; Doxorubicine [Inn-French]; Doxorubicinum [Inn-Latin]
Drug Category: Antibiotics; Antineoplastic Agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved; Investigational
Absorption: Not Available
Toxicity (Overdose): LD50=21800 ug/kg (rat, subcutaneous)
Protein Binding: 70%
Biotransformation: Not Available
Half Life: 55 hours
Dosage Forms of DM2: Solution Intravenous
Powder, for solution Intravenous
Chemical IUPAC Name: (7S,9S)-7-[(2R,4S,5S,6S)-4-amino-5-hydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxy-6,9,11-trihydroxy-9-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-4-methoxy-8,10-dihydro-7H-tetracene-5,12-dione
Chemical Formula: C27H29NO11
Doxorubicin on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doxorubicin
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals