Demeclocycline [USAN:BAN] - General Information
A tetracycline analog having a 7-chloro and a 6-methyl. Because it is excreted more slowly than tetracycline, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time. [PubChem]
Pharmacology of Demeclocycline [USAN-BAN]
Demeclocycline [USAN:BAN] is a tetracycline antibiotic active against the following microorganisms: Rickettsiae (Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsial pox, tick fevers), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (PPLO, Eaton agent), agents of psittacosis and ornithosis, agents of lymphogranulomavenereum and granuloma inguinale, the spirochetal agent of relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis), Haemophilus ducreyi (chancroid), Yersinia pestis, Pasteurella pestis and Pasteurella tularensis, Bartonella bacilliformis, Bacteroides species, Vibrio comma and Vibrio fetus, and Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin). Demeclocycline [USAN:BAN] inhibits cell growth by inhibiting translation. Demeclocycline [USAN:BAN] is lipophilic and can easily pass through the cell membrane or passively diffuses through porin channels in the bacterial membrane. Demeclocycline [USAN:BAN] is bacteriostatic (it impairs bacterial growth but does not kill bacteria directly). Because it is excreted more slowly than tetracycline, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time.
Demeclocycline [USAN:BAN] for patients
Demeclocycline hydrochloride is a pill given by mouth, usually 2 to 4 times a day. Take the pill on an empty stomach with a full glass of water, 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating a meal or dairy products like milk, yogurt, and ice cream. If you have nausea when taking the medicine, take it with a cracker but no dairy products. If you are also taking iron pills, take the iron pills 2 hours before or 3 hours after the demeclocycline hydrochloride pill. Keep the medicine in a tightly closed container away from heat and moisture and out of the reach of children and pets. Do not drive a car or operate heavy machinery until you know the effect that demeclocycline hydrochloride has on you. If you are dizzy, lightheaded, or feel tired, you should not drive or operate heavy machinery. Stop the drug and call your doctor or nurse right away if you develop a rash, fever, muscle aches, diarrhea with abdominal cramping, or blood or pus in your stool. This can be a serious reaction and needs to be treated right away.
Demeclocycline [USAN:BAN] Interactions
Because the tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.
Since bacteriostatic drugs, such as the tetracycline class of antibiotics, may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillins, it is not advisable to administer these drugs concomitantly.
Concurrent use of tetracyclines with oral contraceptives may render oral contraceptives less effective. Breakthrough bleeding has been reported
Demeclocycline [USAN:BAN] Contraindications
This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines.
Additional information about Demeclocycline [USAN:BAN]
Demeclocycline [USAN:BAN] Indication: Used primarily to treat Lyme disease, acne, and bronchitis. Also indicated (but rarely used) to treat urinary tract infections, gum disease, malaria, and other bacterial infections such as gonorrhea and chlamydia. One of its other registered uses is the treatment of hyponatremia (low blood sodium concentration) due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) where fluid restriction alone has been ineffective.
Mechanism Of Action: Demeclocycline [USAN:BAN] inhibits cell growth by inhibiting translation. It binds (reversibly) to the 30S and 50S ribosomal subunit and prevents the amino-acyl tRNA from binding to the A site of the ribosome, which impairs protein synthesis by bacteria. The binding is reversible in nature. The use in SIADH actually relies on a side-effect of tetracycline antibiotics; many may cause diabetes insipidus (dehydration due to the inability to concentrate urine). It is not completely understood why demeclocycline impairs the action of antidiuretic hormone, but it is thought that it blocks the binding of the hormone to its receptor.
Drug Interactions: Acitretin Increased risk of intracranial hypertension
Amoxicillin Possible antagonism of action
Ampicillin Possible antagonism of action
Anisindione The tetracycline increases the anticoagulant effect
Azlocillin Possible antagonism of action
Aztreonam Possible antagonism of action
Carbenicillin Possible antagonism of action
Clavulanate Possible antagonism of action
Cloxacillin Possible antagonism of action
Cyclacillin Possible antagonism of action
Dicloxacillin Possible antagonism of action
Flucloxacillin Possible antagonism of action
Hetacillin Possible antagonism of action
Dicumarol The tetracycline increases the anticoagulant effect
Digoxin The tetracycline increases the anticoagulant effect
Ethinyl Estradiol This anti-infectious agent could decrease the effect of the oral contraceptive
Etretinate Increased risk of intracranial hypertension
Insulin The tetracycline increases the anticoagulant effect
Insulin-aspart The tetracycline increases the anticoagulant effect
Insulin-detemir The tetracycline increases the anticoagulant effect
Insulin-glargine The tetracycline increases the anticoagulant effect
Insulin-glulisine The tetracycline increases the anticoagulant effect
Insulin-lispro The tetracycline increases the anticoagulant effect
Isotretinoin Increased risk of intracranial hypertension
Methoxyflurane The tetracycline increases the anticoagulant effect
Warfarin The tetracycline increases the anticoagulant effect
Mestranol This anti-infectious agent could decrease the effect of the oral contraceptive
Mezlocillin Possible antagonism of action
Nafcillin Possible antagonism of action
Oxacillin Possible antagonism of action
Penicillin G Possible antagonism of action
Penicillin V Possible antagonism of action
Piperacillin Possible antagonism of action
Aluminium Formation of non-absorbable complexes
Attapulgite Formation of non-absorbable complexes
Bismuth Formation of non-absorbable complexes
Bacampicillin Possible antagonism of action
Calcium Formation of non-absorbable complexes
Iron Formation of non-absorbable complexes
Magnesium oxide Formation of non-absorbable complexes
Magnesium Formation of non-absorbable complexes
Meticillin Possible antagonism of action
Acenocoumarol The tetracycline increases the anticoagulant effect
Pivampicillin Possible antagonism of action
Pivmecillinam Possible antagonism of action
Tazobactam Possible antagonism of action
Ticarcillin Possible antagonism of action
Zinc Formation of non-absorbable complexes
Food Interactions: Take on an empty stomach.
Avoid milk and multivalent ions.
Generic Name: Demeclocycline
Synonyms: Not Available
Drug Category: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Tetracyclines
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Absorption: Tetracyclines are readily absorbed.
Toxicity (Overdose): Oral, rat: LD50 = 2372 mg/kg
Protein Binding: 41-50%
Half Life: 10-17 hours
Dosage Forms of Demeclocycline [USAN:BAN]: Tablet Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: (2E,4S,4aS,5aS,6S,12aS)-2-(amino-hydroxymethylidene)-7-chloro-4-dimethylamino-6,10,11,12a-tetrahydroxy-4a,5,5a,6-tetrahydro-4H-tetracene-1,3,12-trione
Chemical Formula: C21H21ClN2O8
Demeclocycline on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demeclocycline
Organisms Affected: Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria