Dineval - General Information
An indandione that has been used as an anticoagulant. Dineval has actions similar to warfarin, but it is now rarely employed because of its higher incidence of severe adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p234)
Pharmacology of Dineval
Dineval thins the blood by antagonizing vitamin K which is required for the production of clotting factors in the liver. Anticoagulants such as Dineval have no direct effect on an established thrombus, nor do they reverse ischemic tissue damage (damage caused by an inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body). However, once a thrombus has occurred, the goal of anticoagulant treatment is to prevent further extension of the formed clot and prevent secondary thromboembolic complications which may result in serious and possibly fatal sequelae. Dineval has actions similar to warfarin, but it is now rarely employed because of its higer incidence of severe adverse effects.
Additional information about Dineval
Dineval Indication: For the treatment of pulmonary embolism, cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation and flutter, cerebral embolism, mural thrombosis, and thrombophili. Also used for anticoagulant prophylaxis.
Mechanism Of Action: Dineval inhibits vitamin K reductase, resulting in depletion of the reduced form of vitamin K (vitamin KH2). As vitamin K is a cofactor for the carboxylation of glutamate residues on the N-terminal regions of vitamin K-dependent proteins, this limits the gamma-carboxylation and subsequent activation of the vitamin K-dependent coagulant proteins. The synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X and anticoagulant proteins C and S is inhibited. Depression of three of the four vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (factors II, VII, and X) results in decreased prothrombin levels and a decrease in the amount of thrombin generated and bound to fibrin. This reduces the thrombogenicity of clots.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Phenindione
Synonyms: Not Available
Drug Category: Anticoagulants
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Absorption: Absorbed slowly from the gastrointestinal tract.
Toxicity (Overdose): Oral, mouse: LD50 = 175 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 163 mg/kg.
Protein Binding: 88%
Half Life: 5-10 hours
Dosage Forms of Dineval: Not Available
Chemical IUPAC Name: 2-phenylindene-1,3-dione
Chemical Formula: C15H10O2
Phenindione on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenindione
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals