Dofetilida - General Information
Dofetilida is a class III antiarrhythmic agent that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the maintenance of sinus rhythm in individuals prone to the formation of atrial fibrillation and flutter, and for the chemical cardioversion to sinus rhythm from atrial fibrillation and flutter. [Wikipedia]
Pharmacology of Dofetilida
Dofetilida is an antiarrhythmic drug with Class III (cardiac action potential duration prolonging) properties and is indicated for the maintenance of normal sinus rhythm. Dofetilida increases the monophasic action potential duration in a predictable, concentration-dependent manner, primarily due to delayed repolarization. At concentrations covering several orders of magnitude, Dofetilida blocks only IKr with no relevant block of the other repolarizing potassium currents (e.g., IKs, IK1). At clinically relevant concentrations, Dofetilida has no effect on sodium channels (associated with Class I effect), adrenergic alpha-receptors, or adrenergic beta-receptors.
Dofetilida for patients
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
Cimetidine: Concomitant use of cimetidine is contraindicated. Cimetidine at 400 mg BID (the usual prescription dose) co-administered with TIKOSYN (500 mcg BID) for 7 days has been shown to increase dofetilide plasma levels by 58%. Cimetidine at doses of 100 mg BID (OTC dose) resulted in a 13% increase in dofetilide plasma levels (500 mcg single dose). No studies have been conducted at intermediate doses of cimetidine. If a patient requires TIKOSYN and anti-ulcer therapy, it is suggested that omeprazole, ranitidine, or antacids (aluminum and magnesium hydroxides) be used as alternatives to cimetidine, as these agents have no effect on the pharmacokinetic profile of TIKOSYN.
Verapamil: Concomitant use of verapamil is contraindicated. Co-administration of TIKOSYN with verapamil resulted in increases in dofetilide peak plasma levels of 42%, although overall exposure to dofetilide was not significantly increased. In an analysis of the supraventricular arrhythmia and DIAMOND patient populations, the concomitant administration of verapamil with dofetilide was associated with a higher occurrence of torsade de pointes.
Ketoconazole: Concomitant use of ketoconazole is contraindicated. Ketoconazole at 400 mg daily (the maximum approved prescription dose) co-administered with TIKOSYN (500 mcg BID) for 7 days has been shown to increase dofetilide Cmax by 53% in males and 97% in females, and AUC by 41% in males and 69% in females.
Trimethoprim Alone or in Combination with Sulfamethoxazole: Concomitant use of trimethoprim alone or in combination with sulfamethoxazole is contraindicated. Trimethoprim 160 mg in combination with 800 mg sulfamethoxazole co-administered BID with TIKOSYN (500 mcg BID) for 4 days has been shown to increase dofetilide AUC by 103% and Cmax by 93%.
Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) Alone or in Combination with Triamterene: Concomitant use of HCTZ alone or in combination with triamterene is contraindicated. HCTZ 50 mg QD or HCTZ/triamterene 50/100 mg QD was co-administered with TIKOSYN (500 mcg BID) for 5 days (following 2 days of diuretic use at half dose). In patients receiving HCTZ alone, dofetilide AUC increased by 27% and Cmax by 21%. However, the pharmacodynamic effect increased by 197% (QTc increase over time) and by 95% (maximum QTc increase). In patients receiving HCTZ in combination with triamterene, dofetilide AUC increased by 30% and Cmax by 16%. However, the pharmacodynamic effect increased by 190% (QTc increase over time) and by 84% (Maximum QTc increase). The pharmacodynamic effects can be explained by a combination of the increase in dofetilide exposure and the reductions in serum potassium. In the DIAMOND trials, 1252 patients were treated with TIKOSYN and diuretics concomitantly of whom 493 died compared to 508 deaths among the 1248 patients receiving placebo and diuretics. Of the 229 patients who had potassium depleting diuretics added to their concomitant medications in the DIAMOND trials, the patients on TIKOSYN had a non-significantly reduced relative risk for death of 0.68 (95% CI 0.376, 1.230).
Potential Drug Interactions
Dofetilide is eliminated in the kidney by cationic secretion. Inhibitors of renal cationic secretion are contraindicated with TIKOSYN. In addition, drugs that are actively secreted via this route (e.g., triamterene, metformin and amiloride) should be co-administered with care as they might increase dofetilide levels.
Dofetilide is metabolized to a small extent by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme of the cytochrome P450 system. Inhibitors of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme could increase systemic dofetilide exposure. Inhibitors of this isoenzyme (e.g., macrolide antibiotics, azole antifungal agents, protease inhibitors, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, amiodarone, cannabinoids, diltiazem, grapefruit juice, nefazadone, norfloxacin, quinine, zafirlukast) should be cautiously coadministered with TIKOSYN as they can potentially increase dofetilide levels. Dofetilide is not an inhibitor of CYP3A4 nor of other cytochrome P450 isoenzymes (e.g., CYP2C9, CYP2D6) and is not expected to increase levels of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
Other Drug Interaction Information
Digoxin: Studies in healthy volunteers have shown that TIKOSYN does not affect the pharmacokinetics of digoxin. In patients, the concomitant administration of digoxin with dofetilide was associated with a higher occurrence of torsade de pointes. It is not clear whether this represents an interaction with TIKOSYN or the presence of more severe structural heart disease in patients on digoxin; structural heart disease is a known risk factor for arrhythmia. No increase in mortality was observed in patients taking digoxin as concomitant medication.
Other Drugs: In healthy volunteers, amlodipine, phenytoin, glyburide, ranitidine, omeprazole, hormone replacement therapy (a combination of conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone), antacid (aluminum and magnesium hydroxides) and theophylline did not affect the pharmacokinetics of TIKOSYN. In addition, studies in healthy volunteers have shown that TIKOSYN does not affect the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of warfarin, or the pharmacokinetics of propranolol (40 mg twice daily), phenytoin, theophylline, or oral contraceptives.
Population pharmacokinetic analyses were conducted on plasma concentration data from 1445 patients in clinical trials to examine the effects of concomitant medications on clearance or volume of distribution of dofetilide. Concomitant medications were grouped as ACE inhibitors, oral anticoagulants, calcium channel blockers, beta blockers, cardiac glycosides, inducers of CYP3A4, substrates and inhibitors of CYP3A4, substrates and inhibitors of P-glycoprotein, nitrates, sulphonylureas, loop diuretics, potassium sparing diuretics, thiazide diuretics, substrates and inhibitors of tubular organic cation transport, and QTc-prolonging drugs. Differences in clearance between patients on these medications (at any occasion in the study) and those off medications varied between -16% and +3%. The mean clearances of dofetilide were 16% and 15% lower in patients on thiazide diuretics and inhibitors of tubular organic cation transport, respectively.
TIKOSYN is contraindicated in patients with congenital oracquired long QT syndromes. TIKOSYN should not be used in patients with a baseline QT interval or QTc >440 msec (500 msec in patients with ventricular conduction abnormalities). TIKOSYN is also contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment (calculated creatinine clearance <20 mL/min).
The concomitant use of verapamil or the cation transport system inhibitors cimetidine, trimethoprim (alone or in combination with sulfamethoxazole) or ketoconazole with TIKOSYN is contraindicated, as each of these drugs cause a substantial increase in dofetilide plasma concentrations. In addition, other known inhibitors of the renal cation transport system such as prochlorperazine and megestrol should not be used in patients on TIKOSYN.
The concomitant use of hydrochlorothiazide (alone or in combinations such as with triamterene) with TIKOSYN is contraindicated because this has been shown to significantly increase dofetilide plasma concentrations and QT interval prolongation.
TIKOSYN is also contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to the drug.
Additional information about Dofetilida
Dofetilida Indication: For the maintenance of normal sinus rhythm (delay in time to recurrence of atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter [AF/AFl]) in patients with atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter of greater than one week duration who have been converted to normal sinus rhythm
Mechanism Of Action: The mechanism of action of Dofetilida is a blockade of the cardiac ion channel carrying the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current, IKr. This inhibition of potassium channels results in a prolongation of action potential duration and the effective refractory period of accessory pathways (both anterograde and retrograde conduction in the accessory pathway).
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Dofetilide
Synonyms: Dofetilida [Inn-Spanish]; Dofetilidum [Inn-Latin]
Drug Category: Antiarrhythmic Agents; Potassium Channel Blockers
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Toxicity (Overdose): Not Available
Protein Binding: 60% -70%
Half Life: 10 hours
Dosage Forms of Dofetilida: Capsule Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: N-[4-[2-[2-(4-methanesulfonamidophenyl)ethyl-methylamino]ethoxy]phenyl]methanesulfonamide
Chemical Formula: C19H27N3O5S2
Dofetilide on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dofetilide
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals