Etibi - General Information
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
Pharmacology of Etibi
Etibi is an oral chemotherapeutic agent which is specifically effective against actively growing microorganisms of the genus Mycobacterium, including M. tuberculosis. Etibi inhibits RNA synthesis and decreases tubercle bacilli replication. Nearly all strains of M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii as well as a number of strains of MAC are sensitive to ethambutol.
Etibi for patients
The results of a study of coadministration of ethambutol (50 mg/kg) with an aluminum hydroxide containing antacid to 13 patients with tuberculosis showed a reduction of mean serum concentrations and urinary excretion of ethambutol of approximately 20% and 13%, respectively, suggesting that the oral absorption of ethambutol may be reduced by these antacid products. It is recommended to avoid concurrent administration of ethambutol with aluminum hydroxide containing antacids for at least 4 hours following ethambutol administration.
MYAMBUTOL is contraindicated in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to this drug. It is also contraindicated in patients with known optic neuritis unless clinical judgment determines that it may be used. MYAMBUTOL is contraindicated in patients who are unable to appreciate and report visual side effects or changes in vision (eg, young children, unconscious patients).
Additional information about Etibi
Etibi Indication: For use, as an adjunct, in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Mechanism Of Action: Etibi inhibits arabinosyl transferases involved in cell wall biosynthesis.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Take with food to reduce irritation.
Generic Name: Ethambutol
Synonyms: D-Ethambutol; EMB; Etambutol [INN-Spanish]; Etambutolo [DCIT]; Ethambutol dihydrochloride; Ethambutol HCL; Ethambutol Hydrochloride; Ethambutol, racemic mixture; Ethambutolum [INN-Latin]; Aethambutolum
Drug Category: Antitubercular Agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Ethambutol: Dadibutol; Diambutol; Etibi; Myambutol; Tibutol;
Absorption: About 75% to 80% of an orally administered dose of ethambutol is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
Toxicity (Overdose): The most commonly recognized toxic effect of ethambutol is optic neuropathy, which generally is considered uncommon and reversible in medical literature. Other side effects that have been observed are pruritus, joint pain, gastrointestinal upset, abdominal pain, malaise, headache, dizziness, mental confusion, disorientation, and possible hallucinations.
Protein Binding: 20-30%
Biotransformation: Hepatic. Up to 15% of administered drug is metabolized to inactive metabolites. The main path of metabolism appears to be an initial oxidation of the alcohol to an aldehydic intermediate, followed by conversion to a dicarboxylic acid.
Half Life: In patients with normal renal function, 3 to 4 hours. In patients with impaired renal function, up to 8 hours.
Dosage Forms of Etibi: Tablet Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: 2-[2-(1-hydroxybutan-2-ylamino)ethylamino]butan-1-ol
Chemical Formula: C10H24N2O2
Ethambutol on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethambutol
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals