Etodolic Acid - General Information
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with potent analgesic and antiarthritic properties. It has been shown to be effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; ankylosing spondylitis; and in the alleviation of postoperative pain (pain, postoperative). [PubChem]
Pharmacology of Etodolic Acid
Etodolic Acid, an antiinflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties, is used to treat osteoarthritis and control acute pain.
Etodolic Acid for patients
Lodine, like other drugs of its class, can cause discomfort and, rarely, more serious side effects, such as gastrointestinal bleeding, which may result in hospitalization and even fatal outcomes. Although serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptom. Patients should be informed of the importance of this follow-up Effects Risk of GI Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation).
Patients on Lodine (etodolac capsules and tablets) should report to their physicians signs or symptoms of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding, blurred vision or other eye symptoms, skin rash, weight gain, or edema.
Patients should also be instructed to seek medical emergency help in case of an occurrence of anaphylactoid reactions.
Etodolic Acid Interactions
Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors.
The concomitant administration of antacids has no apparent effect on the extent of absorption of Lodine. However, antacids can decrease the peak concentration reached by 15% to 20% but have no detectable effect on the time-to-peak.
When Lodine is administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced, although the clearance of free etodolac is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of Lodine and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.
Cyclosporine, Digoxin, Methotrexate
Lodine, like other NSAIDs, through effects on renal prostaglandins, may cause changes in the elimination of these drugs leading to elevated serum levels of cyclosporine, digoxin, methotrexate, and increased toxicity. Nephrotoxicity associated with cyclosporine may also be enhanced. Patients receiving these drugs who are given Lodine, or any other NSAID, and particularly those patients with altered renal function, should be observed for the development of the specific toxicities of these drugs.
Etodolac has no apparent pharmacokinetic interaction when administered with furosemide or hydrochlorothiazide. Nevertheless, clinical studies, as well as postmarketing observations have shown that Lodine can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure, as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.
Etodolac has no apparent pharmacokinetic interaction when administered with glyburide.
NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.
Phenylbutazone causes increase (by about 80%) in the free fraction of etodolac. Although in vivo studies have not been done to see if etodolac clearance is changed by coadministration of phenylbutazone, it is not recommended that they be coadministered.
Etodolac has no apparent pharmacokinetic interaction when administered with phenytoin.
The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than that of users of either drug alone. Short-term pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that concomitant administration of warfarin and LodineÒ (etodolac capsules and tablets) results in reduced protein binding of warfarin, but there was no change in the clearance of free warfarin. There was no significant difference in the pharmacodynamic effect of warfarin administered alone and warfarin administered with Lodine as measured by prothrombin time. Thus, concomitant therapy with warfarin and Lodine should not require dosage adjustment of either drug. However, caution should be exercised because there have been a few spontaneous reports of prolonged prothrombin times, with or without bleeding, in etodolac-treated patients receiving concomitant warfarin therapy.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
The urine of patients who take Lodine can give a false-positive reaction for urinary bilirubin (urobilin) due to the presence of phenolic metabolites of etodolac. Diagnostic dip-stick methodology, used to detect ketone bodies in urine, has resulted in false-positive findings in some patients treated with Lodine. Generally, this phenomenon has not been associated with other clinically significant events. No dose relationship has been observed.
Lodine treatment is associated with a small decrease in serum uric acid levels. In clinical trials, mean decreases of 1 to 2 mg/dL were observed in arthritic patients receiving etodolac (600 mg to 1000 mg/day) after 4 weeks of therapy. These levels then remained stable for up to 1 year of therapy.
Etodolic Acid Contraindications
Lodine is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to etodolac. Lodine should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients.
Additional information about Etodolic Acid
Etodolic Acid Indication: For acute and long-term use in the management of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as for the management of pain.
Mechanism Of Action: The antiinflammatory effects of etodolac may result from the inhibition of the enzyme cycooxygenase and the subsequent peripheral inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. As prostaglandins sensitize pain receptors, their inhibition accounts for the peripheral analgesic effects of etodolac. Antipyresis may occur by central action on the hypothalamus, resulting in peripheral dilation, increased cutaneous blood flow, and subsequent heat loss.
Drug Interactions: Alendronate Increased risk of gastric toxicity
Methotrexate The NSAID increases the effect and toxicity of methotrexate
Anisindione The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect
Dicumarol The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect
Acenocoumarol The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect
Warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect
Cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity
Food Interactions: Take with food.
Generic Name: Etodolac
Synonyms: Not Available
Drug Category: Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Agents (NSAIDs)
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Etodolac: Etodolac [Usan-Ban-Inn]; Etodolacetodolic acid; Etodolaco [Inn-Spanish]; Etodolacum [Inn-Latin]; Etodolic Acid; Lodine; Lodine XL; Ultradol;
Absorption: Based on mass balance studies, the systemic availability of etodolac from either the tablet or capsule formulation, is at least 80%.
Toxicity (Overdose): Symptoms of overdose include lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain.
Protein Binding: 100%
Biotransformation: Etodolac is extensively metabolized in the liver, with renal elimination of etodolac and its metabolites being the primary route of excretion.
Half Life: 7.3 ± 4.0 hours
Dosage Forms of Etodolic Acid: Capsule Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: 2-(1,8-diethyl-4,9-dihydro-3H-pyrano[3,4-b]indol-1-yl)acetic acid
Chemical Formula: C17H21NO3
Etodolac on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etodolac
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals