Internolol - General Information
A cardioselective beta-adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to propranolol, but without a negative inotropic effect. [PubChem]
Pharmacology of Internolol
Internolol, a competitive beta(1)-selective adrenergic antagonist, has the lowest lipid solubility of this drug class. Although it is similar to metoprolol, atenolol differs from pindolol and propranolol in that it does not have intrinsic sympathomimetic properties or membrane-stabilizing activity. Internolol is used alone or with chlorthalidone in the management of hypertension and edema.
Internolol for patients
This belongs to the group of medicines known as beta-blockers. Atenolol can
be used to treat high blood pressure, angina (chest pain) and irregular
heartbeat. It has varied effects in different parts of the body. High Blood
Pressure: Atenolol works by blocking the transmission of messages to the beta
receptors in the heart which slows down the activity of the heart, decreasing
blood pressure. Angina: Atenolol works by blocking the transmission of messages
to the beta receptors in the heart which slows down the activity of the heart
and reduces the heart's need for oxygen. This makes angina attacks less likely
to occur. Irregular Heartbeat: Normally the heartbeat is regulated by special
tissues which conduct electricity. Some cases of irregular heartbeat are caused
by these tissues conducting electricity too quickly. Atenolol works by reducing
over-activity in the conducting tissue.
Catecholamine-depleting drugs (eg, reserpine) may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents. Patients treated with TENORMIN plus a catecholamine depletor should therefore be closely observed for evidence of hypotension and/or marked bradycardia which may produce vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension.
Calcium channel blockers may also have an additive effect when given with TENORMIN.
Beta blockers may exacerbate the rebound hypertension which can follow the withdrawal of clonidine. If the two drugs are coadministered, the beta blocker should be withdrawn several days before the gradual withdrawal of clonidine. If replacing clonidine by beta-blocker therapy, the introduction of beta blockers should be delayed for several days after clonidine administration has stopped.
Concomitant use of prostaglandin synthase inhibiting drugs, eg, indomethacin, may decrease the hypotensive effects of beta blockers.
Information on concurrent usage of atenolol and aspirin is limited. Data from several studies, ie, TIMI-II, ISIS-2, currently do not suggest any clinical interaction between aspirin and beta blockers in the acute myocardial infarction setting.
While taking beta blockers, patients with a history of anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may have a more severe reaction on repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat the allergic reaction.
TENORMIN is contraindicated in sinus bradycardia, heart block greater than first degree, cardiogenic shock, and overt cardiac failure.
TENORMIN is contraindicated in those patients with a history of hypersensitivity to the atenolol or any of the drug productís components.
Additional information about Internolol
Internolol Indication: For the management of hypertention and long-term management of patients with angina pectoris
Mechanism Of Action: Like metoprolol, atenolol competes with sympathomimetic neurotransmitters such as catecholamines for binding at beta(1)-adrenergic receptors in the heart and vascular smooth muscle, inhibiting sympathetic stimulation. This results in a reduction in resting heart rate, cardiac output, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and reflex orthostatic hypotension. Higher doses of atenolol also competitively block beta(2)-adrenergic responses in the bronchial and vascular smooth muscles.
Drug Interactions: Acetohexamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Ampicillin Ampicillin decreases bioavailability of atenolol
Chlorpropamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Clonidine Increased hypertension when clonidine stopped
Dihydroergotamine Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Dihydroergotoxine Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Diltiazem Increased risk of bradycardia
Disopyramide The beta-blocker increases toxicity of disopyramide
Epinephrine Hypertension, then bradycardia
Ergonovine Ischmeia with risk of gangrene
Ergotamine Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Gliclazide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glipizide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glisoxepide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glibenclamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glycodiazine The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Ibuprofen Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins
Indomethacin Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins
Insulin The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin-aspart The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin-glargine The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin-detemir The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin-glulisine The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin-lispro The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Lidocaine The beta-blocker increases the effect and toxicity of lidocaine
Methysergide Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Piroxicam Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins
Prazosin Risk of hypotension at the beginning of therapy
Repaglinide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Tolazamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Tolbutamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Verapamil Increased effect of both drugs
Food Interactions: Consult your doctor before taking large amounts of Vitamin K (Green leafy vegetables).
Take 30-60 minutes before meals, take at the same time each day.
Generic Name: Atenolol
Synonyms: Not Available
Drug Category: Sympatholytics; Antihypertensive Agents; Antiarrhythmic Agents; Adrenergic Agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Absorption: Approximately 50% of an oral dose is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, the remainder being excreted unchanged in the feces.
Toxicity (Overdose): LD50=2000-3000 mg/kg(orally in mice). Symptoms of an atenolol overdose include a slow heart beat, shortness of breath, fainting, dizziness, weakness, confusion, nausea, and vomiting.
Protein Binding: Plasma protein binding is 6-16%
Biotransformation: Hepatic (minimal)
Half Life: 6-7 hours
Dosage Forms of Internolol: Tablet Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: 2-[4-[2-hydroxy-3-(propan-2-ylamino)propoxy]phenyl]acetamide
Chemical Formula: C14H22N2O3
Atenolol on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atenolol
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals