Kenamycin A - General Information
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components. [PubChem]
Pharmacology of Kenamycin A
Kenamycin A is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of t-RNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Aminoglycosides are useful primarily in infections involving aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Enterobacter. In addition, some mycobacteria, including the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, are susceptible to aminoglycosides. Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria can also be treated with aminoglycosides, but other types of antibiotics are more potent and less damaging to the host. In the past the aminoglycosides have been used in conjunction with penicillin-related antibiotics in streptococcal infections for their synergistic effects, particularly in endocarditis. Aminoglycosides are mostly ineffective against anaerobic bacteria, fungi and viruses.
Kenamycin A for patients
Kenamycin A Interactions
In vitro mixing of an aminoglycoside with beta-lactamtype antibiotics (penicillins or cephalosporins) may result in a significant mutual inactivation. Even when an aminoglycoside and a penicillin-type drug are administered separately by different routes, a reduction in aminoglycoside serum half-life or serum levels has been reported in patients with impaired renal function and in some patients with normal renal function. Usually, such inactivation of the aminoglycoside is clinically significant only in patients with severely impaired renal function.. See
Kenamycin A Contraindications
A history of hypersensitivity or toxic reaction to one aminoglycoside may also contraindicate the use of any other aminoglycoside, because of the known cross- sensitivity and cumulative effects of drugs in this category.
THIS DRUG IS NOT INDICATED IN LONG- TERM THERAPY (e.g. Tuberculosis) BECAUSE OF THE TOXIC HAZARD ASSOCIATED WITH EXTENDED ADMINISTRATION.
Additional information about Kenamycin A
Kenamycin A Indication: For treatment of infections where one or more of the following are the known or suspected pathogens: E. coli, Proteus species (both indole-positive and indole-negative), E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, S. marcescens, and Acinetobacter species.
Mechanism Of Action: Aminoglycosides like kanamycin "irreversibly" bind to specific 30S-subunit proteins and 16S rRNA. Specifically Kenamycin A binds to four nucleotides of 16S rRNA and a single amino acid of protein S12. This interferes with decoding site in the vicinity of nucleotide 1400 in 16S rRNA of 30S subunit. This region interacts with the wobble base in the anticodon of tRNA. This leads to interference with the initiation complex, misreading of mRNA so incorrect amino acids are inserted into the polypeptide leading to nonfunctional or toxic peptides and the breakup of polysomes into nonfunctional monosomes.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Kanamycin
Synonyms: KAN; Aminodeoxykanamycin; Kanamycin Base; Kanamycin Sulfate; Nebramycin Factor 5
Drug Category: Anti-Bacterial Agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Absorption: Kanamycin is rapidly absorbed after intramuscular injection and peak serum levels are generally reached within approximately one hour.
Toxicity (Overdose): Oral LD50 is 17500 mg/kg in mice, over 4 g/kg in rats, and over 3 g/kg in rabbits.
Protein Binding: Not Available
Biotransformation: Not Available
Half Life: 2.5 hours
Dosage Forms of Kenamycin A: Tablet Oral
Injection, solution Intravenous
Injection, solution Intramuscular
Chemical IUPAC Name: (2R,3S,4S,5R,6R)-2-(aminomethyl)-6-[(1R,2R,3S,4R,6S)-4,6-diamino-3-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-4-amino-3,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy-2-hydroxycyclohexyl]oxyoxane-3,4,5-triol
Chemical Formula: C18H36N4O11
Kanamycin on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanamycin
Organisms Affected: Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria