Lanvis - General Information
An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia. [PubChem]
Pharmacology of Lanvis
Lanvis is an antineoplastic anti-metabolite used in the treatment of several forms of leukemia including acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Anti-metabolites masquerade as purine or pyrimidine - which become the building blocks of DNA. They prevent these substances becoming incorporated in to DNA during the "S" phase (of the cell cycle), stopping normal development and division. Lanvis was first synthesized and entered into clinical trial more than 30 years ago. It is a 6-thiopurine analogue of the naturally occurring purine bases hypoxanthine and guanine. Intracellular activation results in incorporation into DNA as a false purine base. An additional cytotoxic effect is related to its incorporation into RNA. Lanvis is cross-resistant with mercaptopurine. Cytotoxicity is cell cycle phase-specific (S-phase).
Lanvis for patients
Patients should be informed that the major toxicities of thioguanine are related to myelosuppression, hepatotoxicity, and gastrointestinal toxicity. Patients should never be allowed to take the drug without medical supervision and should be advised to consult their physician if they experience fever, sore throat, jaundice, nausea, vomiting, signs of local infection, bleeding from any site, or symptoms suggestive of anemia. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant.
There is usually complete cross-resistance between PURINETHOL (mercaptopurine) and TABLOID brand Thioguanine.
As there is in vitro evidence that aminosalicylate derivatives (e.g., olsalazine, mesalazine, or sulphasalazine) inhibit the TPMT enzyme, they should be administered with caution to patients receiving concurrent thioguanine therapy.
Thioguanine should not be used in patients whose disease has demonstrated prior resistance to this drug. In animals and humans, there is usually complete cross-resistance between PURINETHOL (mercaptopurine) and TABLOID brand Thioguanine.
Additional information about Lanvis
Lanvis Indication: For remission induction and remission consolidation treatment of acute nonlymphocytic leukemias.
Mechanism Of Action: Lanvis competes with hypoxanthine and guanine for the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRTase) and is itself converted to 6-thioguanilyic acid (TGMP), which reaches high intracellular concentrations at therapeutic doses. TGMP interferes with the synthesis of guanine nucleotides by its inhibition of purine biosynthesis by pseudofeedback inhibition of glutamine-5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase, the first enzyme unique to the de novo pathway of purine ribonucleotide synthesis. TGMP also inhibits the conversion of inosinic acid (IMP) to xanthylic acid (XMP) by competition for the enzyme IMP dehydrogenase. Lanvis nucleotides are incorporated into both the DNA and the RNA by phosphodiester linkages, and some studies have shown that incorporation of such false bases contributes to the cytotoxicity of thioguanine. Its tumor inhibitory properties may be due to one or more of its effects on feedback inhibition of de novo purine synthesis; inhibition of purine nucleotide interconversions; or incorporation into the DNA and RNA. The overall result of its action is a sequential blockade of the utilization and synthesis of the purine nucleotides.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Thioguanine
Synonyms: TG; ThG; Tioguanine; Tioguanin; 6-Thioguanine; 6-Mercaptoguanine; 6-Mercapto-2-aminopurine; 2-Aminopurine-6-thiol; 2-Aminopurine-6(1H)-thione; 2-Aminopurin-6-thiol; 2-Amino-6-purinethiol; 2-Amino-6-merkaptopurin; 2-Amino-6-mercaptopurine; 2-Amino 6MP
Drug Category: Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Absorption: Absorption of an oral dose is incomplete and variable, averaging approximately 30% of the administered dose (range: 14% to 46%)
Toxicity (Overdose): Oral, mouse: LD50 = 160 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include nausea, vomiting, malaise, hypotension, and diaphoresis.
Protein Binding: Not Available
Biotransformation: Hepatic. First converted to 6-thioguanilyic acid (TGMP). TGMP is further converted to the di- and tri-phosphates, thioguanosine diphosphate (TGDP) and thioguanosine triphosphate (TGTP) by the same enzymes that metabolize guanine nucleotides.
Half Life: 80 minutes (range 25-240 minutes)
Dosage Forms of Lanvis: Tablet Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: 2-amino-3,7-dihydropurine-6-thione
Chemical Formula: C5H5N5S
Thioguanine on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thioguanine
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals