Maclicine - General Information
One of the penicillins which is resistant to penicillinase. [PubChem]
Pharmacology of Maclicine
Maclicine is a beta-lactamase resistant penicillin similar to oxacillin. Maclicine has in vitro activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bactericidal activity of dicloxacillin results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis and is mediated through dicloxacillin binding to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). Maclicine is stable against hydrolysis by a variety of beta-lactamases, including penicillinases, and cephalosporinases and extended spectrum beta-lactamases.
Maclicine for patients
Patients receiving penicillins should be given the following information and instructions by the physician:
1. Patients should be told that penicillin is an antibacterial agent which will work with the body's natural defenses to control certain types of infections. They should be told that the drug should not be taken if they have had an allergic reaction to any form of penicillin previously, and to inform the physician of any allergies or previous allergic reactions to any drugs they may have had.
2. Patients who have previously experienced an anaphylactic reaction to penicillin should be instructed to wear a medical identification tag or bracelet.
3. Because most antibacterial drugs taken by mouth are best absorbed on an empty stomach, patients should be directed, unless circumstances warrant otherwise, to take penicillin one hour before meals or two hours after eating.
4. Patients should be told to take the entire course of therapy prescribed. even if fever and other symptoms have stopped.
5. If any of the following reactions occur stop taking your prescription and notify the physiclan shortness of breath wheezing, skin rash, mouth irritation, black tongue, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, swollen joints or any unusual bleeding or bruising.
6. Do not take any additional medications without physician approval including nonprescription drugs such as antacids laxatives or vitamins.
7. Discard any liquid forms of penicillin after seven days if stored at room temperature or after 14 days it refrigerated.
Tetracycline, a bacteriostatic antibiotic, may antagonize the bactercidal effect of penicillin and concurrent use of these drugs should be avoided.
A history of a hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reaction to any penicillin is a contraindication.
Additional information about Maclicine
Maclicine Indication: Used to treat infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci which have demonstrated susceptibility to the drug.
Mechanism Of Action: Maclicine exerts a bactericidal action against penicillin-susceptible microorganisms during the state of active multiplication. All penicillins inhibit the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, dicloxacillin inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that dicloxacillin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.
Drug Interactions: Anisindione The IV penicillin increases the anticoagulant effect
Demeclocycline Possible antagonism of action
Dicumarol The IV penicillin increases the anticoagulant effect
Doxycycline Possible antagonism of action
Ethinyl Estradiol This anti-infectious agent could decrease the effect of the oral contraceptive
Mestranol This anti-infectious agent could decrease the effect of the oral contraceptive
Methacycline Possible antagonism of action
Minocycline Possible antagonism of action
Warfarin The IV penicillin increases the anticoagulant effect
Oxytetracycline Possible antagonism of action
Rolitetracycline Possible antagonism of action
Tetracycline Possible antagonism of action
Methotrexate The penicillin increases the effect and toxicity of methotrexate
Acenocoumarol The IV penicillin increases the anticoagulant effect
Food Interactions: Take on an empty stomach, food decreases the availability.
Generic Name: Dicloxacillin
Synonyms: Diclossacillina [DCIT]; Dicloxacilina [INN-Spanish]; Dicloxacillin Sodium; Dicloxacilline [INN-French]; Dicloxacillinum [INN-Latin]; Dicloxacilin; Dicloxacycline
Drug Category: Anti-Bacterial Agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Absorption: Absorption of the isoxazolyl penicillins after oral administration is rapid but incomplete: peak blood levels are achieved in 1-1.5 hours. Oral absorption of cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin and nafcillin is delayed when the drugs are administered after meals.
Toxicity (Overdose): Oral LD50 in rat is 3579 mg/kg. Symptoms of overexposure include irritation, rash, labored breathing, hives, itching, wheezing, nausea, chills, and fever.
Protein Binding: Binds to serum protein, mainly albumin.
Biotransformation: Not Available
Half Life: The elimination half-life for dicloxacillin is about 0.7 hour.
Dosage Forms of Maclicine: Capsule Oral
Powder, for solution Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: (2S,5R,6R)-6-[[3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl]amino]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid
Chemical Formula: C19H17Cl2N3O5S
Dicloxacillin on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dicloxacillin
Organisms Affected: Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria