Malamar - General Information
A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes. [PubChem]
Pharmacology of Malamar
Malamar is an organophosphate insecticide commonly used to control mosquitos and other flying insects. Pharmaceutically, malathion is used to eliminate head lice. The principal toxicological effect of malathion is cholinesterase inhibition, due primarily to malaoxon and to phosphorus thionate impurities.
Malamar for patients
1. OVIDE Lotion is flammable. The lotion and hair wet with lotion should not be exposed to open flames or electric heat sources, including hair dryers and electric curlers. Do not smoke while applying lotion or while hair is wet. The person applying OVIDE Lotion should wash hands after application. Allow hair to dry naturally and to remain uncovered after application of OVIDE Lotion.
2. OVIDE Lotion should only be used on children under the direct supervision of an adult. Children should be warned to stay away from lighted cigarettes, open flames, and electric heat sources while the hair is wet.
3. In case of accidental ingestion of OVIDE Lotion by mouth, seek medical attention immediately.
4. If you are pregnant or nursing, you should contact your physician before using OVIDE Lotion.
5. If OVIDE Lotion comes into contact with the eyes, flush immediately with water. Consult a physician if eye irritation persists or if visual changes occur.
6. If skin irritation occurs, wash scalp and hair immediately. If the irritation clears, OVIDE Lotion may be reapplied. If irritation reoccurs, consult a physician.
7. Slight stinging sensations may be produced when using OVIDE Lotion.
8. Apply OVIDE Lotion on the scalp hair in an amount just sufficient to thoroughly wet hair and scalp. Pay particular attention to the back of the head and neck when applying OVIDE Lotion. Anyone applying OVIDE Lotion should wash hands immediately after the application process is complete.
9. Allow hair to dry naturally and to remain uncovered. Shampoo hair after 8 to 12 hours, again paying attention to the back of the head and neck while shampooing.
10. Rinse hair and use a fine-toothed (nit) comb to remove dead lice and eggs.
11. If lice are still present after 7-9 days, repeat with a second application of OVIDE Lotion.
12. Further treatment is generally not necessary. Other family members should be evaluated by a physician to determine if infested, and if so, receive treatment.
No information available.
OVIDE Lotion is contraindicated for neonates and infants because their scalps are more permeable and may have increased absorption of malathion. OVIDE Lotion should also not be used on individuals known to be sensitive to malathion or any of the ingredients in the vehicle.
Additional information about Malamar
Malamar Indication: For patients infected with Pediculus humanus capitis (head lice and their ova) of the scalp hair.
Mechanism Of Action: Malamar is a nonsystemic, wide-spectrum organophosphate insecticide. It inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity of most eukaryotes. Malamar is toxic to aquatic organisms, but has a relatively low toxicity for birds and mammals. The major metabolites of malathion are mono- and di-carboxylic acid derivatives, and malaoxon is a minor metabolite. However, it is malaoxon that is the strongest cholinesterase inhibitor. Cholinesterases catalyze the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into choline and acetic acid, a reaction necessary to allow a cholinergic neuron to return to its resting state after activation. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of cholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing muscle spasms and ultimately death.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Malathion
Synonyms: Compound 4049; Experimental insecticide 4049; Malathione; Mercaptosuccinic acid diethyl ester; MLT; Carbophos; Carbofos; Maldison; Mercaptothion; Mercaptotion; Oleophosphothion; Insecticide no. 4049
Drug Category: Cholinesterase Inhibitors; Insecticides
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved; Investigational
Absorption: Malathion in an acetone vehicle has been reported to be absorbed through normal human skin only to the extent of 8% of the applied dose. Absorption may be increased when malathion is applied to damaged skin. Malathion is rapidly and effectively absorbed by practically all routes including the gastrointestinal tract, skin, mucous membranes, and lungs. However, it is readily excreted in the urine, and does not accumulate in organs or tissues.
Toxicity (Overdose): Malathion is slightly toxic via the oral route, with reported oral LD50 values of 1000 mg/kg to greater than 10,000 mg/kg in the rat. It is also slightly toxic via the dermal route, with reported dermal LD50 values of greater than 4000 mg/kg in rats. Moderate poisoning can result in chest tightness, difficulty breathing, bradycardia, tachycardia, tremor/ataxia, blurred vision, and confusion. Severe, life-threatening signs include coma, seizures, respiratory arrest, and paralysis. Malathion may also be irritating to the skin and eyes.
Protein Binding: Not Available
Biotransformation: The major metabolites of malathion are the diacid and monoacid metabolites, namely, malathion dicarboxylic acid (DCA) and malathion monocarboxylic acid (MCA). Malaoxon, the active cholinesterase-inhibiting metabolite of malathion, is a minor metabolite. Both malathion and malaoxon are detoxified by carboxyesterases leading to polar, water-soluble compounds that are excreted.
Half Life: 8-24 hours
Dosage Forms of Malamar: Lotion Topical
Chemical IUPAC Name: diethyl 2-dimethoxyphosphinothioylsulfanylbutanedioate
Chemical Formula: C10H19O6PS2
Malathion on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malathion
Organisms Affected: Head lice