Mannitol BP - General Information
Mannitol BP is an osmotic diuretic that is metabolically inert in humans and occurs naturally, as a sugar or sugar alcohol, in fruits and vegetables. Mannitol BP elevates blood plasma osmolality, resulting in enhanced flow of water from tissues, including the brain and cerebrospinal fluid, into interstitial fluid and plasma. As a result, cerebral edema, elevated intracranial pressure, and cerebrospinal fluid volume and pressure may be reduced. Mannitol BP may also be used for the promotion of diuresis before irreversible renal failure becomes established; the promotion of urinary excretion of toxic substances; as an Antiglaucoma agent; and as a renal function diagnostic aid.
Pharmacology of Mannitol BP
Chemically, mannitol is an alcohol and a sugar, or a polyol; it is similar to xylitol or sorbitol. However, mannitol has a tendency to lose a hydrogen ion in aqueous solutions, which causes the solution to become acidic. For this reason, it is not uncommon to add a substance to adjust its pH, such as sodium bicarbonate. Mannitol BP is commonly used to increase urine production (diuretic). It is also used to treat or prevent medical conditions that are caused by an increase in body fluids/water (e.g., cerebral edema, glaucoma, kidney failure). Mannitol BP is frequently given along with other diuretics (e.g., furosemide, chlorothiazide) and/or IV fluid replacement.
Mannitol BP for patients
Mannitol BP Interactions
No information provided.
Mannitol BP Contraindications
OSMITROL Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) is contraindicated in patients with:
Well established anuria due to severe renal disease,
Severe pulmonary congestion or frank pulmonary edema,
Active intracranial bleeding except during craniotomy,
Progressive renal damage or dysfunction after institution of mannitol therapy, including increasing oliguria and azotemia, and
Progressive heart failure or pulmonary congestion after institution of mannitol therapy.
Additional information about Mannitol BP
Mannitol BP Indication: Used for the promotion of diuresis before irreversible renal failure becomes established; The reduction of intracranial pressure, the treatment of cerebral edema, and the promotion of urinary excretion of toxic substances.
Mechanism Of Action: Mannitol BP is an osmotic diuretic that is metabolically inert in humans and occurs naturally, as a sugar or sugar alcohol, in fruits and vegetables. Mannitol BP elevates blood plasma osmolality, resulting in enhanced flow of water from tissues, including the brain and cerebrospinal fluid, into interstitial fluid and plasma. As a result, cerebral edema, elevated intracranial pressure, and cerebrospinal fluid volume and pressure may be reduced. As a diurectic mannitol induces diuresis because it is not reabsorbed in the renal tubule, thereby increasing the osmolality of the glomerular filtrate, facilitating excretion of water, and inhibiting the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and other solutes. Mannitol BP promotes the urinary excretion of toxic materials and protects against nephrotoxicity by preventing the concentration of toxic substances in the tubular fluid. As an Antiglaucoma agent mannitol levates blood plasma osmolarity, resulting in enhanced flow of water from the eye into plasma and a consequent reduction in intraocular pressure. As a renal function diagnostic aid mannitol is freely filtered by the glomeruli with less than 10% tubular reabsorption. Therefore, its urinary excretion rate may serve as a measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Mannitol
Synonyms: D-Mannitol; Cordycepic acid
Drug Category: Diuretics, Osmotic; Sweetening Agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved; Investigational
Absorption: Approximately 7% of ingested mannitol is absorbed during gastrointestinal perfusion in uremic patients.
Toxicity (Overdose): LD50=1700 mg/kg (rat oral)
Protein Binding: None
Biotransformation: Mannitol is metabolized only slightly, if at all, to glycogen in the liver.
Half Life: 100 minutes
Dosage Forms of Mannitol BP: Solution Intravenous
Chemical IUPAC Name: hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol
Chemical Formula: C6H14O6
Mannitol on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mannitol
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals