Neuthion - General Information

A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides. [PubChem]


Pharmacology of Neuthion

Not Available


Additional information about Neuthion

Neuthion Indication: For nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
Mechanism Of Action: Neuthion (GSH) participates in leukotriene synthesis and is a cofactor for the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. It is also important as a hydrophilic molecule that is added to lipophilic toxins and waste in the liver during biotransformation before they can become part of the bile. Neuthion is also needed for the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a toxin produced as a by-product of metabolism. This detoxification reaction is carried out by the glyoxalase system. Glyoxalase I catalyzes the conversion of methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione to S-D-Lactoyl-glutathione. Glyoxalase II catalyzes the conversion of S-D-Lactoyl Neuthion to Reduced Neuthion and D-lactate. GSH is known as a cofactor in both conjugation reactions and reduction reactions, catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase enzymes in cytosol, microsomes, and mitochondria. However, it is capable of participating in non-enzymatic conjugation with some chemicals, as it is hypothesized to do to a significant extent with n-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), the reactive cytochrome P450 reactive metabolite formed by toxic overdose of acetaminophen. Neuthion in this capacity binds to NAPQI as a suicide substrate and in the process detoxifies it, taking the place of cellular protein sulfhydryl groups which would otherwise be toxically adducted. The preferred medical treatment to an overdose of this nature, whose efficacy has been consistently supported in literature, is the administration (usually in atomized form) of N-acetylcysteine, which is used by cells to replace spent GSSG and allow a usable GSH pool.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Glutathione
Synonyms: GSH; 5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine; gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; N-(N-gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl)glycine; Gluthathione
Drug Category: Dietary supplement; Micronutrient
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Nutraceutical; Approved

Other Brand Names containing Glutathione: Tathion; Neuthion; Isethion; Copren; Ledac;
Absorption: Research suggests that glutathione is not orally bioactive, and that very little of oral glutathione tablets or capsules is actually absorbed by the body.
Toxicity (Overdose): ORL-MUS LD50 5000 mg/kg, IPR-MUS LD50 4020 mg/kg, SCU-MUS LD50 5000 mg/kg, IVN-RBT LD50 > 2000 mg/kg, IMS-MUS LD50 4000 mg/kg
Protein Binding: Not Available
Biotransformation: Not Available
Half Life: Not Available
Dosage Forms of Neuthion: Not Available
Chemical IUPAC Name: (2S)-2-amino-5-[[(2R)-1-(carboxymethylamino)-1-oxo-3-sulfanylpropan-2-yl]amino]-5-oxopentanoic acid
Chemical Formula: C10H17N3O6S
Glutathione on Wikipedia:
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals