Nitrosyl radical

Nitrosyl radical - General Information

Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of mammals including humans and is an extremely important intermediate in the chemical industry. It is also a toxic air pollutant produced by automobile engines and power plants.
Nitric oxide (NO) should not be confused with nitrous oxide (N2O), a general anaesthetic, or with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which is another poisonous air pollutant.
The nitric oxide molecule is a free radical, which is relevant to understanding its high reactivity. It reacts with the ozone in air to form nitrogen dioxide, signalled by the appearance of the reddish-brown color.


Pharmacology of Nitrosyl radical

Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) occurs as a primary developmental defect or as a condition secondary to other diseases such as meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), pneumonia, sepsis, hyaline membrane disease, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and pulmonary hypoplasia. In these states, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is high, which results in hypoxemia secondary to right-to-left shunting of blood through the patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. In neonates with PPHN, Nitric oxide improves oxygenation (as indicated by significant increases in PaO2). Nitric oxide appears to increase the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) by dilating pulmonary vessels in better entilated areas of the lung, redistributing pulmonary blood flow away from lung regions with low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratios toward regions with normal ratios.


Nitrosyl radical for patients


Nitrosyl radical Interactions

No formal drug-interaction studies have been performed, and a clinically significant interaction with other medications used in the treatment of hypoxic respiratory failure cannot be excluded based on the available data. INOmax has been administered with tolazoline, dopamine, dobutamine, steroids, surfactant, and high-frequency ventilation. Although there are no study data to evaluate the possibility, nitric oxide donor compounds, including sodium nitroprusside and nitroglycerin, may have an additive effect with INOmax on the risk of developing methemoglobinemia. An association between prilocaine and an increased risk of methaemoglobinaemia, particularly in infants, has specifically been described in a literature case report. This risk is present whether the drugs are administered as oral, parenteral, or topical formulations.


Nitrosyl radical Contraindications

INOmax should not be used in the treatment of neonates known to be dependent on right-to-left shunting of blood.


Additional information about Nitrosyl radical

Nitrosyl radical Indication: For the treatment of term and near-term (>34 weeks) neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure
Mechanism Of Action: Nitric oxide is a compound produced by many cells of the body. It relaxes vascular smooth muscle by binding to the heme moiety of cytosolic guanylate cyclase, activating guanylate cyclase and increasing intracellular levels of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate, which then leads to vasodilation. When inhaled, nitric oxide produces pulmonary vasodilation.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Nitric Oxide
Synonyms: Not Available
Drug Category: Bronchodilator Agents; Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors; Free Radical Scavengers
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved

Other Brand Names containing Nitric Oxide: Amidogen, oxo-; INOmax; Mononitrogen monoxide; NMO; NO; Nitric oxide 10% by volume or more; Nitric oxide trimer; Nitrogen monooxide; Nitrogen monoxide; Nitrogen oxide; Nitrosyl radical; RCRA waste number P076; nitrogen protoxide;
Absorption: Nitric oxide is absorbed systemically after inhalation.
Toxicity (Overdose): Not Available
Protein Binding: Not Available
Biotransformation: via pulmonary capillary bed
Half Life: 2–6 seconds
Dosage Forms of Nitrosyl radical: Gas Respiratory (inhalation)
Chemical IUPAC Name: nitric oxide
Chemical Formula: NO
Nitric Oxide on Wikipedia:
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals